An Overview of Aldehydes and Ketones: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #27 | Summary and Q&A

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April 28, 2021
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An Overview of Aldehydes and Ketones: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #27

TL;DR

Aldehydes and ketones are important functional groups in organic chemistry with various applications in biochemistry, drug treatments, and synthesis methods.

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Questions & Answers

Q: What are some common examples of aldehydes and ketones?

Common examples of aldehydes include formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, while acetone is a well-known ketone. There are also natural aldehydes, such as vanillin and cinnamaldehyde, which are used in fragrances and flavors.

Q: How are aldehydes and ketones named?

Aldehydes are named by adding the suffix "-al" to the standard name of the carbon chain, while ketones have the suffix "-one" added. However, some aldehydes and ketones have "old" common names that do not follow this naming convention.

Q: What are some methods to synthesize aldehydes and ketones?

Aldehydes can be obtained by oxidizing primary alcohols, while ketones are formed through the oxidation of secondary alcohols. Other methods include ozonolysis of alkenes and reactions involving hydroboration and oxymercuration.

Q: How can aldehydes and ketones be reduced to form alcohols?

Reduction reactions, such as using sodium borohydride or lithium aluminum hydride, can convert aldehydes and ketones into primary and secondary alcohols, respectively. This involves nucleophilic attack at the carbonyl carbon.

Summary & Key Takeaways

  • Aldehydes and ketones are aromatic compounds with distinct smells, commonly known for their use in fragrances and nail polish remover.

  • These functional groups are also significant in biochemistry and drug treatments, with examples like sex hormones, anti-inflammatory medication, and steroid treatments.

  • Organic chemists focus on finding energy-efficient and non-polluting methods to synthesize aldehydes and ketones.

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