Naming Acid Anhydrides and Nitriles - IUPAC Nomenclature | Summary and Q&A

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May 3, 2018
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Naming Acid Anhydrides and Nitriles - IUPAC Nomenclature

TL;DR

Learn how to name acid anhydrides and nitriles based on the number of carbon atoms and functional groups present.

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Questions & Answers

Q: How are symmetrical acid anhydrides named?

Symmetrical anhydrides have the same number of carbon atoms on both sides. Replace the "e" in the corresponding alkane name with "oic" and add "anhydride." For example, ethanoic anhydride.

Q: How do you name unsymmetrical acid anhydrides?

Unsymmetrical anhydrides have different numbers of carbon atoms on each side. Identify the alkane names for each side, ensuring alphabetical order, and add "anhydride." For example, ethanoic propanoic anhydride.

Q: How are nitriles named?

Nitriles are named by identifying the longest carbon chain and adding the suffix "-nitrile." Number the chain so that the nitrile functional group has the lowest possible number. Include any substituents using appropriate prefixes. For example, butane nitrile.

Q: How do you name nitriles with substituents?

Identify the longest carbon chain and add "-nitrile." Number the chain, starting with the carbon closest to the nitrile group. Use appropriate prefixes for substituents. For example, 4-methylheptane nitrile.

Summary & Key Takeaways

  • Acid anhydrides can be named by replacing the "e" in the corresponding alkane name with "oic" and adding "anhydride."

  • Symmetrical acid anhydrides have the same number of carbon atoms on both sides, while unsymmetrical anhydrides have different numbers.

  • Nitriles are named by identifying the longest carbon chain, adding the suffix "-nitrile" and any substituents, with the numbering based on the nitrile functional group.

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