An Incomplete Guide to Rollups and the Power of Lists


Hatched by Glasp

Aug 13, 2023

4 min read


An Incomplete Guide to Rollups and the Power of Lists


In the world of blockchain technology, scalability has always been a challenge. As more users and transactions flood the network, the strain on the system becomes apparent. This has led to the development of layer-2 scaling solutions, such as state channels, Plasma, and rollups. Each of these approaches has its strengths and limitations, but rollups, in particular, have gained attention for their unique hybrid nature. In this article, we will explore the concept of rollups, their benefits, and how they are poised to revolutionize the Ethereum ecosystem.

Scaling Challenges and Layer-2 Solutions:

Before delving into rollups, let's first understand the need for layer-2 scaling solutions. The capacity of a blockchain to process transactions is inherently limited. As more users join the network and demand increases, the blockchain becomes congested, resulting in slower transaction times and higher fees.

There are two main approaches to addressing this issue. The first is to increase the transaction capacity of the blockchain itself. However, this comes with its own set of challenges, as larger blocks are harder to verify and can lead to centralization. The second approach is to offload some of the transaction activity to a layer-2 protocol, allowing for faster and cheaper transactions.

State channels and Plasma are two popular layer-2 solutions that have been explored. State channels allow for off-chain transactions between participants, reducing the burden on the blockchain. However, they have limitations, such as the inability to send funds to non-participants and the requirement of a large amount of locked-up capital.

Plasma, on the other hand, offers more flexibility and scalability. It allows for off-chain transfers to participants who were not initially part of the system and requires lower capital requirements. However, both state channels and Plasma rely on the concept of logical ownership, which limits their applicability to certain use cases.

Introducing Rollups:

Rollups offer a unique solution that combines the benefits of off-chain computation with the security of on-chain data. In a rollup, computation and state storage are moved off-chain, but some data per transaction is kept on-chain. This allows for significant scalability improvements while maintaining the ability to verify and detect fraud.

One of the key advantages of rollups is their efficiency. Compared to a standard Ethereum transaction, which requires a significant amount of gas, a rollup transaction takes up minimal on-chain space and costs significantly less gas. For example, an ERC20 token transfer in a rollup can be processed with just 16 bytes of on-chain data and under 300 gas.

Rollups are also fully general-purpose, meaning that existing Ethereum applications can migrate to rollups with minimal code changes. By running an EVM inside a rollup, developers can leverage the power and functionality of the Ethereum ecosystem while enjoying the scalability benefits of rollups.

Types of Rollups:

There are two main types of rollups: optimistic rollups and ZK rollups. Optimistic rollups use fraud proofs to ensure the validity of batches. The rollup contract keeps track of the state roots and batches, and anyone can submit a batch for verification. If the post-state root is proven to be incorrect, the fraud can be detected and challenged.

ZK rollups, on the other hand, utilize validity proofs in the form of ZK-SNARKs. These cryptographic proofs verify the correctness of the post-state root and can be quickly verified on-chain. While ZK-SNARKs are a complex technology, they offer the potential for even greater scalability as the technology improves.

Actionable Advice:

  • 1. Embrace Rollups: If you're a developer or user of Ethereum-based applications, consider exploring rollups as a solution for scalability. Rollups offer the best of both worlds, combining off-chain computation with on-chain security.
  • 2. Start Experimenting: As rollup technology evolves, it's important to stay informed and experiment with different rollup implementations. By familiarizing yourself with the possibilities and limitations of rollups, you can position yourself at the forefront of this emerging technology.
  • 3. Advocate for Decentralization: While rollups offer scalability, it's crucial to advocate for decentralization and open-source solutions. Look for rollup implementations that prioritize these principles and ensure that your data and transactions are secure and accessible.


Rollups are poised to revolutionize the Ethereum ecosystem by providing a scalable and efficient layer-2 solution. With their hybrid approach and unique benefits, rollups offer a promising path forward for blockchain scalability. By embracing rollups, experimenting with different implementations, and advocating for decentralization, we can contribute to the growth and success of this exciting technology.


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