An Incomplete Guide to Rollups: Scaling Ethereum with Layer-2 Solutions


Hatched by Glasp

Jul 19, 2023

5 min read


An Incomplete Guide to Rollups: Scaling Ethereum with Layer-2 Solutions


Scaling has always been a major concern in the blockchain space, and Ethereum is no exception. As the demand for decentralized applications (dApps) continues to grow, finding ways to increase transaction capacity and reduce costs has become crucial. One of the most promising solutions to address this issue is the implementation of layer-2 scaling techniques, such as rollups. In this article, we will explore the concept of rollups, their advantages, and how they can contribute to the scalability of the Ethereum network.

Understanding the Need for Scaling

Before diving into rollups, it's important to understand why scaling is necessary in the first place. As the popularity of Ethereum and other blockchain platforms increases, the network becomes congested with more transactions than it can efficiently handle. This congestion leads to higher transaction fees and longer confirmation times, ultimately hindering the user experience and limiting the growth potential of dApps.

The Traditional Approach: Bigger Blocks

One approach to scaling a blockchain ecosystem is to increase the transaction capacity of the base-layer blockchain itself. However, this technique comes with its own challenges. When block sizes are increased, the computational requirements for verifying transactions also increase. This can lead to a more centralized network, as only nodes with sufficient computational power can participate in the validation process.

Layer-2 Scaling: Introducing Rollups

Layer-2 scaling techniques, on the other hand, aim to move a significant portion of the transaction activity off-chain while maintaining the security and decentralization of the underlying blockchain. Rollups, in particular, offer a hybrid solution by moving computation and state storage off-chain while keeping some essential data on-chain.

State Channels and Plasma: The Predecessors of Rollups

Before rollups gained popularity, state channels and Plasma were the primary layer-2 scaling solutions explored within the Ethereum ecosystem. State channels allow users to perform off-chain transactions without requiring any data to be published on the blockchain during normal operation. However, state channels have limitations. They cannot be used to send funds off-chain to individuals who are not yet participants, and they are not suitable for representing objects without a clear logical owner.

Plasma, on the other hand, provides stronger properties than state channels by enabling the transfer of assets to participants who were never part of the system. However, similar to state channels, Plasma requires regular on-chain publishing of hashes and has limitations when it comes to objects without a logical owner.

The Advantages of Rollups

Rollups offer several advantages over their predecessors. First and foremost, they are fully general-purpose and can even support the execution of Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) code. This means that existing Ethereum applications can migrate to rollups with minimal code modifications.

Furthermore, rollups significantly reduce the amount of data that needs to be stored on-chain. By compressing transaction information, rollups can achieve a scaling factor of over 100x for most applications. For example, a simple Ethereum transaction requires around 110 bytes, while an ETH transfer on a rollup takes only about 12 bytes.

Types of Rollups: Optimistic and ZK

There are two main types of rollups: optimistic and ZK (zero-knowledge). Optimistic rollups rely on fraud proofs, where the rollup contract keeps track of the entire history of state roots and the hash of each batch. If someone submits a batch with an invalid post-state root, fraud can be detected and proven. This type of rollup allows for faster verification of transactions on-chain.

ZK rollups, on the other hand, use validity proofs, such as ZK-SNARKs (zero-knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge). These cryptographic proofs provide a way to verify the correctness of a batch's post-state root without revealing the underlying data. While ZK rollups require more computational resources for generating and verifying proofs, they offer stronger security guarantees and can achieve higher scalability in the long run.

The Role of Eth2 Data Sharding

To further enhance the scalability of rollups, Ethereum 2.0 (Eth2) introduces data sharding. Sharding opens up a dedicated space for data storage within the Ethereum network, allowing rollups to take advantage of this additional capacity. With the help of sharding, rollups can achieve even higher transaction throughput, potentially scaling Ethereum to thousands of transactions per second.

Actionable Advice for Entrepreneurs

As an entrepreneur in the blockchain space, it's essential to learn from the mistakes of others and stay up-to-date with the latest advancements. Here are three actionable pieces of advice to keep in mind:

  • 1. Research the History of Your Idea: Before embarking on a new venture, investigate whether similar concepts or projects have been attempted in the past. By learning from the successes and failures of others, you can better position yourself to outperform previous attempts.
  • 2. Explore Layer-2 Scaling Techniques: Familiarize yourself with layer-2 scaling solutions, such as rollups, state channels, and Plasma. Understand their advantages, limitations, and how they can benefit your business model. Consider adopting these techniques to enhance the scalability and user experience of your dApp.
  • 3. Stay Informed About Ethereum's Roadmap: Keep a close eye on Ethereum's development roadmap, especially regarding Eth2 and data sharding. Understanding the upcoming improvements and enhancements to the Ethereum network will help you plan your long-term scaling strategies and stay ahead of the competition.


Rollups present a promising solution to the scalability challenges faced by Ethereum and other blockchain platforms. By moving computation and state storage off-chain while maintaining a secure and decentralized on-chain infrastructure, rollups offer a scalable and efficient layer-2 scaling paradigm. With the advent of Eth2 data sharding, rollups are expected to play a crucial role in the future of Ethereum, enabling thousands of transactions per second and unlocking the full potential of decentralized applications. As an entrepreneur, it's essential to embrace these advancements and leverage layer-2 scaling techniques to build scalable and user-friendly solutions in the blockchain space.

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