Navigating the Complexities of Semiconductor Industry: Lessons for China and the Vulnerabilities of the US

Aviral Vaid

Hatched by Aviral Vaid

Dec 12, 2023

3 min read


Navigating the Complexities of Semiconductor Industry: Lessons for China and the Vulnerabilities of the US


The semiconductor industry plays a crucial role in today's technological landscape. As countries strive to gain self-sufficiency in chip manufacturing, China's pursuit to recreate major players like TSMC, ASML, Lam Research, Applied Materials, and Tokyo Electronic is a substantial endeavor. However, the challenges go beyond replicating these companies; they extend to building a global supply chain, which requires collaboration with entities like Zeiss, TRUMPF, and Access Laser. This article explores the implications of integrated approaches, the vulnerabilities faced by the US, and the increased risks for Taiwan.

The Integrated Approach of Intel:

Intel's integrated approach, where they both design and manufacture chips, allowed them to dictate the terms for chip design, ensuring compatibility with their manufacturing processes. This approach extended not only to chip designs but also to the tooling required for production. By analyzing Intel's integrated model in comparison to TSMC's modular approach, we can glean valuable insights for China's semiconductor industry and understand the risks faced by various stakeholders.

The Economics of Semiconductor Manufacturing:

The economics of the semiconductor industry are unique, with fab construction costs being exorbitant while individual chips have minimal marginal costs. This dichotomy is akin to the software industry, which initially supported chip companies like Intel before transitioning to software development. Understanding this dynamic is crucial for navigating the complexities of building a successful semiconductor industry. It highlights the importance of leveraging venture capital to move down the learning curve in both foundry and equipment levels, rather than relying solely on financial investments.

The Devastating Nature of Disruption:

Disruption in the semiconductor industry is inevitable and can have far-reaching consequences. Managers are often incentivized to maximize their advantages and increase margins rather than embracing disruptive changes. However, disruption cannot be avoided indefinitely. The key lies in recognizing the disruptive potential and proactively adapting to it. This realization is essential for countries like China and the US, as they seek to establish and maintain a competitive edge in semiconductor manufacturing.

Managing Expectations and Embracing Reality:

Expectations play a significant role in shaping our perceptions and emotions. Surprises, particularly when there is a stark contrast between expectations and reality, evoke strong emotions. It is important to recognize and appreciate the value of intangible assets like relationships, freedom, and eyesight, as they are often taken for granted due to their intangible nature. Balancing high expectations with a realistic understanding of the outcomes can help individuals and organizations maintain motivation and minimize disappointment.

Key Takeaways and Actionable Advice:

  • 1. Foster Collaboration: Building a self-sufficient semiconductor industry requires collaboration and integration of various players across the global supply chain. China must focus on establishing partnerships with key entities like Zeiss, TRUMPF, and Access Laser to ensure comprehensive coverage in chip manufacturing.
  • 2. Embrace Disruption: Rather than resisting change, countries and companies should proactively embrace disruption and invest in research and development to stay ahead of the curve. By recognizing the inevitability of disruption, they can leverage their resources to adapt and thrive in the evolving semiconductor landscape.
  • 3. Cultivate Realistic Expectations: While maintaining high aspirations is important, it is equally crucial to manage expectations and appreciate the value of existing assets and achievements. By striking a balance between ambition and a realistic understanding of outcomes, individuals and organizations can avoid unnecessary disappointment and maintain motivation.


The journey to establish a self-sufficient semiconductor industry is a complex one, as China seeks to recreate major players and build a robust global supply chain. Examining the integrated approach of Intel, the economics of semiconductor manufacturing, the devastating nature of disruption, and the significance of managing expectations provides valuable insights for navigating this challenging landscape. By fostering collaboration, embracing disruption, and cultivating realistic expectations, China and other countries can position themselves strategically in the semiconductor industry and reduce vulnerabilities.

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