The Future of Ethereum and Account Abstraction: Revolutionizing Digital Finance

Alessio Frateily

Hatched by Alessio Frateily

Sep 29, 2023

4 min read


The Future of Ethereum and Account Abstraction: Revolutionizing Digital Finance


As the world of digital finance continues to evolve, Ethereum has emerged as a powerful platform for creating decentralized applications and enabling trustless transactions. However, there are still limitations that prevent the widespread adoption of Ethereum and its potential to bring the next billion users to web3. One solution to these limitations is account abstraction, a proposal that aims to improve user interactions with Ethereum and make web3 more user-friendly. In this article, we will explore the concept of account abstraction, its benefits, and its potential to revolutionize digital finance.

Layer 0: Ethereum - The Digital Finance Stack:

Ethereum serves as the foundation for the digital finance stack, providing the infrastructure for decentralized applications and smart contracts. It is the underlying technology that enables account abstraction and opens up new possibilities for user-controlled accounts. With Ethereum, users have the ability to send and receive transactions, interact with other on-chain accounts, and execute basic operations. However, limitations in Ethereum's design have hindered the broad adoption and use of smart accounts.

Layer 1: MakerDAO - The Stability Fee and the Dai Savings Rate:

In the realm of decentralized finance (DeFi), MakerDAO plays a crucial role in providing stability and liquidity. The Stability Fee determines the interest rate for borrowing Dai, the stablecoin of the MakerDAO ecosystem, while the Dai Savings Rate incentivizes users to hold Dai in their accounts. These mechanisms help stabilize the value of Dai and ensure its peg to the US dollar, making it a reliable and secure digital asset for users.

Layer 2: Lending and Borrowing - The Dai Volume-Weighted Average Borrow/Supply Rates:

In the DeFi ecosystem, lending and borrowing platforms play a vital role in providing liquidity and enabling users to earn interest on their assets. The Dai Volume-Weighted Average Borrow/Supply Rates determine the interest rates for lending and borrowing Dai, allowing users to earn passive income or access liquidity as needed. These platforms leverage the power of smart contracts to automate and streamline lending processes, making it easier for users to participate in decentralized finance.

Layer 3: The Application Layer - ETH Locked in DeFi:

As decentralized applications continue to proliferate, the amount of Ethereum locked in DeFi protocols has become a crucial metric for measuring the adoption and growth of the ecosystem. ETH locked in DeFi represents the value of Ethereum that users have entrusted to various decentralized applications, highlighting the increasing interest and confidence in the potential of decentralized finance.

Layer 4: Liquidity - Transaction Volume of Assets:

Liquidity is a key factor in the success of any financial ecosystem, and the transaction volume of assets within the Ethereum network serves as a measure of liquidity. As more assets are tokenized on Ethereum and traded within the ecosystem, the transaction volume reflects the vibrancy and activity of the digital finance stack. Higher transaction volumes indicate a growing user base and increased adoption of decentralized applications.

Account Abstraction: Past, Present, Future:

Account abstraction is a proposal that seeks to improve user interactions with Ethereum and make web3 more user-friendly. By introducing account contracts, special-purpose smart contracts that define and manage a user's Ethereum account, account abstraction enables programmable access to funds and reduces reliance on private keys for security. From a network-level perspective, account abstraction conceals the details of account types, making every account a smart contract. From a user-level perspective, it simplifies wallet designs and reduces the complexity of using web3 applications.

Benefits of Account Abstraction:

Account abstraction removes friction associated with using web3 wallets and interacting with decentralized applications. It brings web3 closer to the user-friendliness of web2 applications, enabling both novice and experienced users to benefit from the same degree of flexibility, security, and ease of use. With account abstraction, wallets become "invisible" as they handle complex processes in the background, such as storing seed phrases/private keys, paying gas fees, and setting up on-chain accounts. Additionally, account abstraction introduces fee abstraction, allowing users to pay for gas fees with ERC-20 tokens and enabling gasless transactions.

Actionable Advice:

  • 1. Embrace account abstraction: As a user, explore wallets and dapps that leverage account abstraction to simplify your interactions with Ethereum. Look for features such as multi-party approvals, key rotation and revocation, trusted sessions, and automatic payments to enhance your experience.
  • 2. Educate yourself on DeFi: With the increasing adoption of account abstraction, DeFi platforms will play a significant role in the digital finance stack. Learn about lending and borrowing platforms, MakerDAO, and other protocols to leverage the benefits of decentralized finance.
  • 3. Participate in the Ethereum ecosystem: Consider locking your ETH in DeFi protocols to contribute to the liquidity and growth of the ecosystem. Explore different dapps and contribute to the transaction volume of assets within the Ethereum network.


Account abstraction has the potential to revolutionize digital finance by making Ethereum more user-friendly and accessible to a broader audience. By introducing programmable, self-custodial accounts and simplifying user interactions with web3 applications, account abstraction brings us closer to the ideal of web2-like user experiences. As the Ethereum ecosystem continues to evolve, embracing account abstraction and participating in the decentralized finance movement will unlock exciting opportunities for individuals and the global financial system as a whole.

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