The Power of Network Effects and Best Practices for Smart Contract Development

Alessio Frateily

Hatched by Alessio Frateily

Aug 03, 2023

4 min read


The Power of Network Effects and Best Practices for Smart Contract Development


In the ever-evolving digital world, network effects have emerged as one of the most significant sources of value creation and defensibility. This article explores the concept of network effects, how they work, and their importance in the digital landscape. Additionally, we delve into the best practices for smart contract development, focusing on Ethereum's role in facilitating the growth of decentralized finance protocols.

Part I: Why Network Effects Are Important

Network effects are the driving force behind the success and value of digital products and services. When every new user enhances the value of a network for existing users, it creates a powerful defensibility mechanism. Alongside brand, embedding, and scale, network effects provide a sustainable advantage in the digital realm.

Part II: How Networks Work

Networks are complex interconnected systems comprising nodes and links. Nodes represent participants such as consumers, devices, customers, buyers, sellers, and brokers. Different nodes within the same network can have varying roles, levels of impact, influence, power, and value. Central nodes, with numerous links, often hold more value, while marginal nodes have fewer connections. The size of a network alone does not determine its value; the level of activity within the network also plays a crucial role.

Understanding the density of a network is important, as it determines the strength of its network effects. A denser network, with a higher ratio of links to nodes, exhibits more powerful network effects. Identifying the "white-hot center" of a network, where density and activity are at their highest, allows for targeted product features and language that can activate other users to behave similarly. This concentration of activity attracts additional nodes, leading to exponential growth.

Part III: Network Properties

Networks are rarely uniform and exhibit irregularities mirroring real-world complex systems. Clusters, hot spots, and dead spots are common within networks. Recognizing these irregularities and focusing on the "white-hot center" enables the initial building of network effects before expanding to the broader network.

Real identity plays a crucial role in networks, as profiles tied to a node's real identity tend to be more effective in building network effects. This is particularly true in two-sided marketplaces and platform network effect businesses, where trust and reputation are vital for transactional liquidity. However, anonymity may be necessary in specific applications, such as cryptocurrency or government spy work, where privacy and security are paramount.

Asymmetry is another characteristic of networks, particularly in marketplaces. In most marketplaces, one side, typically the demand side or buyers, is harder to acquire than the other. Attracting willing buyers often leads to the organic growth of suppliers or sellers. Furthermore, within a side or type of node, certain nodes prove more valuable than others, emphasizing the importance of attracting the right participants.

Homogeneous and heterogeneous networks present contrasting dynamics. Homogeneous networks consist of nodes with the same function, while heterogeneous networks categorize nodes based on both function and utility. Understanding the nature of these networks is crucial in leveraging their potential.

Part IV: Asymptotic Network Effects

As network usage grows, the value to each user typically increases due to network effects. However, in asymptotic networks, growth reaches a point of diminishing returns. After a certain size, additional growth no longer benefits existing users significantly. Recognizing when a network reaches this stage is essential for sustainable expansion and development.

Best Practices for Smart Contract Development:

  • 1. Build with other protocols in mind: Instead of creating clones of existing protocols, consider building something that complements or integrates with existing pieces. This approach promotes collaboration and innovation within the network.
  • 2. Embrace the composable nature of smart contracts: Smart contracts on platforms like Ethereum enable the creation of decentralized finance protocols, or "Money Legos." By utilizing and combining existing financial building blocks, developers can unlock new possibilities and create novel financial products.
  • 3. Prioritize security and code audit: Smart contract development requires a strong focus on security. Conduct thorough code audits, engage in formal verification processes, and remain vigilant against potential vulnerabilities. Implementing strong security measures ensures the trust and reliability of decentralized applications.


Network effects are a vital component of digital products and services, offering defensibility and value creation. Understanding the intricacies of networks, their properties, and the dynamics of smart contract development empowers businesses and developers to leverage these concepts effectively. By embracing best practices and fostering collaboration, the digital landscape can continue to evolve and unlock new possibilities in decentralized finance and beyond.

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