# Lecture 16: Quantization of the Dirac Theory | Summary and Q&A

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February 12, 2024
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MIT OpenCourseWare
Lecture 16: Quantization of the Dirac Theory

## TL;DR

Dirac theory is quantized by replacing commutators with anticommutators and introducing a new sign convention, leading to the existence of chiral fermions and Majorana fermions.

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### Q: Why does the standard quantization method of the Dirac theory lead to the wrong particle statistics?

The standard quantization method results in a Hamiltonian that is unbounded from below, allowing for arbitrarily negative energies. It also leads to symmetric particle exchange, which is characteristic of bosons rather than fermions.

### Q: How is the commutation relation modified in the quantization of the Dirac theory?

The commutator between the field operators is replaced with an anticommutator, resulting in a different sign convention. This change is necessary to ensure self-consistency in the quantization process.

### Q: What is the significance of the anticommutator in the quantization of the Dirac theory?

The anticommutator replaces the standard commutation relation and gives rise to the correct statistics for fermions, such as the Pauli exclusion principle. It ensures that no two fermions can occupy the same state and leads to the creation of antiparticles with opposite charge.

### Q: How are chiral fermions and Majorana fermions related to the Dirac theory?

Chiral fermions and Majorana fermions are alternative descriptions of fermions that arise from different ways of reducing the eight-component Dirac spinor. Chiral fermions have four real components and transform covariantly under Lorentz transformations, while Majorana fermions have four real components and are their own antiparticles.

## Summary & Key Takeaways

• The Dirac theory is quantized by replacing commutators with anticommutators, resulting in a sign change and the existence of negative energy levels.

• The standard quantization method leads to the wrong particle statistics, but a simple fix is to replace commutators with anticommutators.

• The Dirac equation predicts the existence of antiparticles with the same mass and spin but opposite charge, and this prediction was confirmed with the discovery of the positron.