Life of a Packet [I] - Michael Rubin, Google | Summary and Q&A

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April 11, 2017
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CNCF [Cloud Native Computing Foundation]
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Life of a Packet [I] - Michael Rubin, Google

TL;DR

This talk explains the fundamental constructs and philosophies behind Kubernetes networking, including IP per pod, Linux technology, overlays, load balancing, and network policies.

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Questions & Answers

Q: How does Kubernetes ensure that pods can communicate with each other in a cluster?

Kubernetes assigns a real IP address to each pod and uses Linux technology, such as network namespaces and IP routing, to enable communication between pods.

Q: What are the advantages of using overlays in Kubernetes networking?

Overlays provide a way to create an additional layer of complexity on top of the existing network, allowing for easier traversal of network traffic between nodes in the cluster.

Q: How does Kubernetes handle traffic flow between pods on different nodes in a cluster?

Kubernetes does not care about the routing mechanism between pods on different nodes. It can use L2 or L3 overlays, or even other methods like carrier pigeons, as long as the traffic can reach the intended pod.

Q: How does Kubernetes handle incoming and outgoing traffic to/from external networks?

Kubernetes uses NAT (Network Address Translation) to allow pods to communicate with external networks. Traffic is sent through a NAT system, which rewrites the source IP address to an external IP address before sending it out.

Q: How can network policies be implemented in Kubernetes?

Network policies in Kubernetes allow users to control the communication between different pods by specifying which pods are allowed to send traffic to each other and what ports are allowed. It is implemented at the L3 and L4 level and can be complemented by various networking providers or solutions.

Summary & Key Takeaways

  • Kubernetes networking is fundamental to the cluster system, ensuring that applications can communicate with each other.

  • Every pod has its own IP address, allowing seamless communication between pods and eliminating the need for port mapping or private IP addresses.

  • Linux technology, such as network namespaces and IP routing, is used to create isolated network environments for pods.

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