"How AI Disrupts Network Effects and the Future of Work"


Hatched by Glasp

Sep 25, 2023

4 min read


"How AI Disrupts Network Effects and the Future of Work"


In a rapidly advancing technological landscape, both AI and network effects play a significant role in shaping industries and the future of work. AI, or artificial intelligence, has the potential to replace human labor in various fields, triggering concerns among workers. On the other hand, network effects have been a key driver of success for many businesses, but they can also be disrupted by innovative startups. In this article, we will explore the intersection of AI and network effects, delve into the fears surrounding AI-driven job displacement, and discuss strategies for disrupting network effects while maintaining defensibility. Ultimately, we will paint a picture of the evolving landscape of work and provide actionable advice for individuals and businesses to navigate these changes effectively.

AI and the Future of Work:

The rise of AI has sparked fears among workers, with a growing percentage expressing concerns about being replaced by automation. A Gallup survey found that 22% of American workers now fear AI could replace them, a significant increase from previous years. This fear is not limited to workers without college degrees; even those with higher education levels are experiencing a dramatic rise in AI concerns. Goldman Sachs Research estimates that 300 million full-time jobs are exposed to automation, with certain industries, like maintenance and construction, being relatively safe while others, like administration and legal, facing a higher risk of AI displacement.

However, it is important to note that not all jobs are equally susceptible to AI disruption. Skilled trades, for example, are viewed favorably by the younger generation, with 74% of Gen Z believing that these jobs won't be replaced by AI. This highlights the value of specialized skills and the potential for certain industries to adapt and thrive in the face of automation. Nevertheless, the lack of investment in worker retraining poses a challenge, as only 0.1% of GDP is currently allocated to this crucial aspect, emphasizing the need for innovative solutions from the private sector.

Disrupting Network Effects:

Network effects have long been a source of competitive advantage for incumbent businesses. These effects occur when the value of a product or service increases as more people use it. However, startups can disrupt these network effects by targeting novel, low-value markets and gradually encroaching on the incumbent's market. By introducing a superior customer experience and eliminating points of friction, startups can challenge the dominance of established networks.

One approach involves making the incumbent's network redundant, sacrificing network effects in favor of a better customer experience. For example, Zoom overtook Skype by allowing users to call anyone, even without a Zoom account. This strategy turned Skype's closed network into a weakness and propelled Zoom's rapid growth. However, this approach comes with long-term risks, as the startup needs to find alternative ways to establish defensibility and ensure its sustainability in the market.

Another example of disrupting network effects is seen in the real estate industry. Zillow, with its network effect between agents and buyers, was challenged by Opendoor's innovative iBuyer model. By purchasing homes from sellers, refurbishing them, and selling them to buyers, Opendoor made Zillow's marketplace model less competitive. This demonstrates the potential for startups to leverage network effects in one industry and disrupt them in another, creating new opportunities for growth.

Actionable Advice:

  • 1. Embrace AI and Adapt: Rather than fearing AI, individuals should embrace its potential and focus on developing skills that are complementary to this technology. By adapting and acquiring specialized knowledge, workers can position themselves for success in the evolving job market.
  • 2. Invest in Retraining: Governments and businesses must recognize the importance of investing in worker retraining programs. Allocating resources to help workers transition into new roles or acquire new skills is essential in mitigating the potential negative impact of AI on employment.
  • 3. Foster Innovation and Disruption: Startups should identify areas where network effects can be disrupted, either by making them redundant or introducing superior customer experiences. By focusing on innovation and addressing market gaps, startups can challenge incumbents and reshape industries.


The intertwining of AI and network effects creates a complex landscape for businesses and workers alike. While fears of AI-driven job displacement exist, there are also opportunities for industries to adapt and thrive in the face of automation. Disrupting network effects presents startups with a path to challenge incumbents, but it requires careful consideration of long-term risks and the need for defensibility. By embracing AI, investing in retraining, and fostering innovation, individuals and businesses can navigate these changes successfully and shape the future of work.

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