# Numbers: How people move with Math | Muhammad Hammad | TEDxRWA Youth | Summary and Q&A

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September 29, 2023
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TEDx Talks
Numbers: How people move with Math | Muhammad Hammad | TEDxRWA Youth

## TL;DR

Math is the foundation of our universe, leading to innovations and endless possibilities.

## Key Insights

• π€ͺ Math goes beyond numbers and equations; it is the cornerstone of innovation and leads to endless possibilities.
• π Pascal's Triangle and binomial distribution are mathematical concepts that have practical applications in fields like aviation.
• π³οΈ Analyzing data and using math helps airlines predict passenger behavior and optimize revenue.
• π The power of math lies in its ability to unlock the mysteries of the universe and provide a deeper understanding of the world around us.
• ποΈ Math plays a crucial role in decision-making and resource allocation for businesses, such as airlines, to maximize profit and minimize losses.
• ποΈ Missing a flight can have significant consequences for both passengers and airlines, highlighting the importance of understanding the mathematics behind ticket sales.
• πΆ Math serves as a gateway to new ideas, concepts, and opportunities, offering a path to unraveling the mysteries of the universe.

## Transcript

Transcriber: Wonjun (Eddie) Choi Reviewer: Mujtaba bakhet Now, before I begin, I like all of you to look under your seats and see if there is a printed piece of paper there. So letβs get moving, everybody. And if you have piece of paper, then why don't you raise it up high for everyone to see? Nothing goes as planned. if they were raised, you'd see... Read More

### Q: How do airlines use mathematics to optimize profit?

Airlines analyze data on missed flights and passenger behavior to calculate the right number of seats to sell, ensuring maximum profit while minimizing costs of flight overbooking.

### Q: What is the significance of Pascal's Triangle in mathematics?

Pascal's Triangle is a pattern of numbers that helps create binomials and binomial distributions, enabling mathematicians to determine the likelihood of specific scenarios or events happening.

### Q: Why is math considered the foundation of the universe?

Math is a universal language that describes the patterns and laws governing everything in our universe, providing a framework for understanding and exploring the mysteries of nature.

### Q: How does missing a flight affect airlines' revenue?

When passengers miss flights, airlines collect data and use mathematical calculations to ensure they sell the right number of seats. Overbooking can lead to costs associated with compensating passengers who are bumped off flights.

## Summary

This video presents the concept of math as more than just numbers and equations, but as the foundation of our universe and the key to unlocking its mysteries. It uses examples such as Pascal's triangle and overbooking in the airline industry to illustrate how math is used to analyze data, make predictions, and maximize profit. The speaker emphasizes the importance of embracing math as an idea and concept, as it opens up endless possibilities and opportunities.

### Q: What do the numbers 1 3 3 and one represent in Pascal's triangle?

The numbers 1 3 3 and one represent the fourth row of Pascal's triangle. Pascal's triangle is a triangular arrangement of numbers in which each number is the sum of the two numbers above it. The fourth row is formed by adding 1 and 3 from the previous row to get 4, and then adding 3 and 1 to get 4 again.

### Q: How does overbooking work in the airline industry?

Overbooking is a practice in the airline industry where airlines sell more tickets than they have available seats on a flight. This is done because not all passengers show up for their flights, and the airlines bet on a certain percentage of passengers missing their flights. By overbooking, airlines increase their chances of filling up the flight and maximizing their profit.

### Q: Why do airlines analyze data on missed flights?

Airlines analyze data on missed flights to determine the likelihood of passengers showing up for a particular flight. This data helps them make decisions on how many seats to sell and how to optimize their revenue. By studying past patterns, airlines can predict the number of passengers likely to show up for a flight and adjust their strategies accordingly.

### Q: What is a binomial distribution?

A binomial distribution is a statistical concept used to calculate the probability of a certain number of successes in a fixed number of independent Bernoulli trials. In the context of airline overbooking, a binomial distribution can be used to determine the likelihood of a specific number of passengers showing up for a flight. This information is valuable for airlines to make informed decisions about how many seats to sell.

### Q: How do airlines determine the most profitable scenario?

Airlines determine the most profitable scenario by analyzing the data on passenger show-up rates using a binomial distribution. They calculate the potential revenue, loss, and profit for each scenario of different passenger counts. By selecting the scenario that maximizes profit while being the most likely to happen, airlines can optimize their earnings.

### Q: Why do airlines still sell extra tickets if they might have to compensate passengers if everyone shows up?

Airlines still sell extra tickets, even if they might have to compensate passengers if everyone shows up, because the chances of all passengers showing up for a flight are extremely low. The cost of compensating a few passengers is outweighed by the potential profit from selling the extra tickets. It is a calculated risk that allows airlines to maximize their revenue.

### Q: How does math serve as the foundation of our universe?

Math serves as the foundation of our universe because it underlies the laws and patterns that govern everything around us. It helps us understand the physical world, make scientific discoveries, and develop innovative technologies. Math is present in natural phenomena, from the shape of galaxies to the growth patterns of plants, and it is through mathematical concepts and equations that we can unravel the mysteries of the universe.

### Q: What did Galileo mean when he said, "Mathematics is a language with which God has written the universe"?

When Galileo said that "Mathematics is a language with which God has written the universe," he was expressing the idea that mathematics is a powerful tool for understanding the order and beauty in the natural world. By using mathematical language, we can describe and explain the complex workings of the universe, revealing its underlying structure and giving us insights into its many phenomena.

### Q: How does math contribute to innovation?

Math contributes to innovation by providing a framework for problem-solving, logical reasoning, and predictive analysis. It allows us to quantify and measure the world around us, enabling technological advancements, scientific breakthroughs, and the development of new ideas and concepts. Math provides the tools and methods necessary for innovation in fields such as engineering, physics, computer science, and finance.

### Q: What is the speaker's main message about math?

The speaker's main message about math is to view it as more than just a subject or a set of equations. Math is portrayed as an idea, a concept, and a gateway to endless possibilities and opportunities. By embracing math and recognizing its role as the foundation of our universe, we can unlock the mysteries of our world and make meaningful discoveries.

## Takeaways

Math is not just about numbers and calculations; it is the language with which we can understand and interpret the universe. From the patterns of Pascal's triangle to the analysis of data in the airline industry, math plays a crucial role in making predictions, optimizing decisions, and maximizing profit. Embracing math as an idea and concept opens up a world of innovation and endless opportunities. By recognizing the power of math, we have the key to unlocking the mysteries of our universe.

## Summary & Key Takeaways

• Math is more than just numbers and equations; it is the language of the universe and the foundation of every discovery and invention.

• Airlines use math, specifically Pascal's Triangle and binomial distribution, to predict and maximize profits by selling the right number of seats.

• Missing a flight not only inconveniences passengers but also affects airlines' revenue, making it crucial to understand the mathematical calculations behind ticket sales.