The Grossman - Stiglitz Paradox (feat. The Plain Bagel) | Summary and Q&A

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December 21, 2018
by
Ben Felix
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The Grossman - Stiglitz Paradox (feat. The Plain Bagel)

TL;DR

Active and passive investing coexist as active managers help move stock prices closer to their intrinsic value, allowing passive investors to benefit.

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Key Insights

  • 💁 Market efficiency is based on the idea that prices reflect available information, making it difficult for active investors to consistently earn above-average returns.
  • ❓ The Grossman-Stiglitz paradox argues that markets cannot be perfectly efficient because there would be no incentive for anyone to make them efficient.
  • ☢️ Active investors rely on their analysis and estimation of intrinsic value, while passive investors benefit from market efficiency.
  • ☢️ Active and passive investing coexist as active managers help move stock prices closer to their intrinsic value, benefiting passive investors.
  • 🖐️ Stock prices are determined by the transactions carried out by investors, and active investors play a role in identifying market inefficiencies.
  • 💐 The discounted cash flow model is one method used by active investors to estimate a stock's intrinsic value.
  • ☠️ Analysts make adjustments for factors outside a company's control and apply a discount rate to account for risks.

Transcript

  • The Grossman-Stiglitz paradox, stems from a 1980 paper by Sanford Grossman and Joseph Stiglitz. They argued, that markets cannot possibly be perfectly, informationally efficient, because if they were, nobody would expend the resources required to make markets efficient in the first place, let's dig into what that means. (upbeat music) I talk a lo... Read More

Questions & Answers

Q: What is market efficiency and how does it affect investing?

Market efficiency means that stock prices always reflect available information. For investors, it means that it is difficult to consistently earn above-average returns by exploiting mispriced securities. Passive investors benefit from market efficiency.

Q: What is the Grossman-Stiglitz paradox?

The Grossman-Stiglitz paradox suggests that markets cannot be perfectly efficient because if they were, there would be no incentive for anyone to make them efficient. Active investors play a role in identifying and correcting market inefficiencies.

Q: How do active investors determine if a stock is undervalued or overvalued?

Active investors estimate the intrinsic value of a stock by using methods like the discounted cash flow model. They forecast a company's future profitability, apply a discount rate, and make adjustments for external factors. Comparing the estimated value to the stock's current price helps determine if it is over or undervalued.

Q: How do active investors impact stock prices?

Active investors apply upward pressure on stock prices when they buy undervalued stocks. This brings the stock price closer to their estimated intrinsic value. Positive or negative news in the market can also impact stock prices as analysts update their models and adjust their estimated prices.

Summary & Key Takeaways

  • Market efficiency is the idea that prices always fully reflect available information, and index funds work well in an efficient market.

  • The Grossman-Stiglitz paradox argues that markets cannot be perfectly efficient because if they were, nobody would make them efficient in the first place.

  • Active investors believe that stock prices frequently trade higher or lower than their actual worth, while passive investors believe that markets will operate efficiently with many investors present.

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