Lone Pairs and Formal Charges EXPLAINED! | Summary and Q&A

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August 31, 2020
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ThePenguinProf
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Lone Pairs and Formal Charges EXPLAINED!

TL;DR

This video discusses the concept of formal charges and lone pairs in organic chemistry and explains how to determine them using the example of various atoms and molecules.

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Key Insights

  • 🫀 Formal charges can be determined by homolytically cleaving covalent bonds and comparing the number of electrons an atom possesses.
  • 🛀 Lone pairs are calculated based on formal charges and are only shown when necessary in mechanisms.
  • 🫀 The number of lone pairs, formal charges, and bonds can be determined for different atoms, such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and fluorine.
  • 🫀 Understanding the periodic table can help determine the electron configurations and properties of different atoms.
  • 🌀 Isoelectronic species have the same electron configuration and can be used to understand formal charges and lone pairs in organic chemistry.

Transcript

hello everybody and welcome to the organic chemistry series one of the problems organic chemistry students most often struggle with is that of formal charges and lone pairs so does this atom have any formal charge how many lone pairs how many bonds does it make and when i'm drawing mechanisms do i have to draw them all the time so let's address tha... Read More

Questions & Answers

Q: How can formal charges be calculated in organic chemistry?

Formal charges can be calculated by breaking covalent bonds and determining the number of electrons each atom possesses compared to its usual number of electrons. The calculations can be applied to various atoms and molecules.

Q: When should lone pairs be shown in organic chemistry mechanisms?

By convention, lone pairs are only shown when they need to be pushed around in a mechanism. Otherwise, formal charges are used to determine the number of lone pairs an atom possesses.

Q: Is it necessary to memorize the electron configurations of different atoms?

No, it is not necessary to memorize the electron configurations. Instead, one can refer to the periodic table and understand the relationship between formal charges and lone pairs based on the number of electrons each atom possesses.

Q: How can the isoelectronic series concept be used in organic chemistry?

The isoelectronic series concept helps determine the properties of ions or molecules by comparing their electron configurations with other atoms. For example, the ammonium ion (NH4+) and methane (CH4) are iso electronic, meaning they have the same electron configuration.

Summary & Key Takeaways

  • The video explains how to calculate formal charges in molecules by homolytically cleaving all covalent bonds and determining the number of electrons each atom possesses.

  • Lone pairs are calculated based on formal charges, and the video emphasizes the importance of expressing formal charges in mechanisms and only showing lone pairs when necessary.

  • The speaker provides examples of how formal charges and lone pairs are determined for different atoms, such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and fluorine.

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