Genetics - Thomas Morgan & Fruit flies - Lesson 10 | Don't Memorise | Summary and Q&A

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March 28, 2019
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Genetics - Thomas Morgan & Fruit flies - Lesson 10 | Don't Memorise

TL;DR

Fruit flies are powerful tools for geneticists, with 60% of their genes similar to humans, and they are used to study neurodegenerative disorders.

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Key Insights

  • 🪽 Fruit flies, such as Drosophila melanogaster, are used as model organisms in Genetics due to their genetic similarities with humans.
  • 🪽 Approximately 60% of the genes in fruit flies are similar to those in humans.
  • 🪽 Fruit flies are valuable for studying neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.

Transcript

What happens when you keep a peeled banana out in the open? The banana gradually deteriorates and we find several tiny creatures hovering over it! These tiny creatures are commonly called fruit flies. They’re annoying right? But did you know that these small wonders are one of the most powerful tools for geneticists? Sounds hard to believe! But the... Read More

Questions & Answers

Q: Why are fruit flies used as model organisms in Genetics?

Fruit flies are used as model organisms in Genetics because they have genes that are almost 60% similar to humans, making them valuable for studying genetic traits and diseases that affect humans.

Q: What experiments did Thomas Hunt Morgan conduct using fruit flies?

Thomas Hunt Morgan crossed a white-eyed male fruit fly with a red-eyed female and observed that the offspring had all red eyes. He then crossed the offspring and obtained a 3:1 ratio of red-eyed flies to white-eyed flies, confirming the chromosomal theory of inheritance.

Q: How did Morgan's experiments with fruit flies contribute to genetic research?

Morgan's experiments with fruit flies provided evidence for the chromosomal theory of inheritance and demonstrated that genes are located on chromosomes. This knowledge greatly advanced our understanding of genetics and inheritance.

Q: What insights did Morgan gain from his experiments with fruit flies?

Morgan's experiments confirmed that genes are passed down from generation to generation and that eye color genes in fruit flies are sex-linked. His findings also supported Mendel's experiments on plant inheritance.

Summary & Key Takeaways

  • Fruit flies, specifically Drosophila melanogaster, are used as model organisms in Genetics due to their genetic similarities with humans.

  • Fruit flies have genes that are almost 60% similar to humans, making them valuable for studying neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.

  • Thomas Hunt Morgan, the father of experimental genetics, used fruit flies to conduct experiments that confirmed the Chromosomal theory of inheritance.

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