# Einstein's General Theory of Relativity | Lecture 10 | Summary and Q&A

238.8K views
â€˘
May 8, 2009
by
Stanford
Einstein's General Theory of Relativity | Lecture 10

## Summary

This video explores the concept of space and time in relation to general relativity and the effects of mass and energy on the curvature of spacetime. It discusses how space can be flat except at a single point where there is curvature, forming a cone-like shape. The video also delves into the significance of the deficit angle and how it is proportional to the mass or energy of an object. Moreover, it explains the idea that space in three dimensions has a maximum amount of mass that can be present before it closes up, while higher dimensions present even more complications for gravity and electromagnetism.

### Q: Can you explain the concept of space being flat except at a point?

In general relativity, space can be considered flat except at a specific point where there is curvature. This means that if we were to slice through space, we would see a flat surface but with curvature present only at that particular point. It can be visualized as a cone-like shape, where the base of the cone is the flat part of space and the apex is the point of curvature.

### Q: What determines the curvature of spacetime at a point?

The curvature of spacetime at a point is determined by the introduction of mass or energy into that point. When a particle with mass is present, the right-hand side of the equations in general relativity is no longer zero at that point. This leads to a curvature in spacetime only at the location of the particle. The amount of curvature, or the deficit angle, is proportional to the mass or energy of the particle.

### Q: Is the deficit angle always the same for all masses and energies?

No, the deficit angle is not fixed and varies depending on the mass or energy of the particle. The deficit angle is directly proportional to the mass or energy of the particle. This means that a particle with a larger mass or energy will result in a larger deficit angle, indicating more curvature in spacetime at that point.

### Q: Can the curvature of spacetime occur with any distribution of energy, not just a singular particle mass?

Yes, the curvature of spacetime can occur with any distribution of energy that is bounded. It does not necessarily have to be a singular particle mass. Outside the region where the energy is located, the geometry of spacetime may appear like a cone, possibly with a rounded surface. The exact shape of the curvature will depend on the specific distribution of energy, but the overall effect is that of curvature in spacetime.

### Q: How big does the mass or energy have to be to cause spacetime to close up?

The amount of mass or energy required for spacetime to close up completely, forming an infinitely narrow cone, is not very big. In fact, it is the Planck mass, which is incredibly small. One can only fit a very limited amount of mass or energy in three dimensions before spacetime closes up. This limitation means that there is not much room for the development of complex structures, such as intelligent life, in such dimensions.

### Q: What happens when we move to higher dimensions?

Moving to higher dimensions has significant consequences for gravity and electromagnetism. For four dimensions, which includes three spatial dimensions and one time dimension, gravity behaves reasonably well. However, in dimensions higher than four, these forces become increasingly unstable, leading to chaos and unpredictability. The behavior of atoms, electrons, and other particles becomes greatly affected, and it becomes difficult for them to bind together properly.

### Q: Why is four dimensions considered special in physics?

Four dimensions, with three spatial dimensions and one time dimension, is considered special in physics for various reasons. While there are no deep mathematical reasons for this observation, certain features of basic physics seem to work particularly well in four dimensions. These features include the stability of the solar system, the limitation on the amount of mass or energy that can be present before spacetime closes up, and the capability for particles to bind together properly. Although the exact reason for this specialness is unclear, it is a key aspect of our physical reality.

### Q: How did Einstein derive his equations in general relativity?

Einstein derived his equations in general relativity based on the principle of equivalence. He wanted to convert the tensor notation equations, which resemble rotations of space, into a form that would be true in any reference frame. By making certain assumptions about the geometry and transformations of space and time, he arrived at a set of equations that reproduced Newton's equations in certain limits. While not derived from first principles, the equations were postulated to have the same form in every reference frame. Their validity is supported by empirical observations and experimental verification.

### Q: What is the significance of the cosmological constant in Einstein's equations?

The cosmological constant is a term in Einstein's equations that determines the behavior of the gravitational force law. It can be positive or negative and leads to either attraction or repulsion, although different from the Newtonian force law. The value of the cosmological constant was initially unknown, but it was later found to be very small. The effects of the cosmological constant are most noticeable at cosmological distances, and for most situations, it is insignificant. Therefore, in the study of general relativity, it is often neglected until cosmological considerations are taken into account.

### Q: How can we understand the concept of spacetime curvature?

Spacetime curvature arises due to the presence of mass or energy. When a mass or energy distribution is introduced into spacetime, it causes a curvature, changing the geometry of spacetime surrounding it. Objects moving through this curved spacetime are then affected by gravitational forces, causing their trajectories to deviate from straight lines. The amount of curvature is determined by the mass or energy present and can be visualized as the deformation or warping of spacetime itself. This understanding of spacetime curvature provides a framework for explaining how gravity works in the context of general relativity.

## Takeaways

In summary, this video explores the concept of spacetime and its curvature in the context of general relativity. It highlights the relationship between mass or energy distribution and the resulting curvature of spacetime. The video also explains the significance of the deficit angle and how it varies with mass or energy. Additionally, it points out the restrictions on mass or energy that can be present before spacetime closes up. The video emphasizes the special nature of four dimensions in physics and the challenges that arise in higher dimensions. It also discusses how Einstein derived his equations and the role of the cosmological constant. Finally, it provides insights into spacetime curvature and its impact on objects moving through it.