31. Exam Review (Intro to Solid-State Chemistry) | Summary and Q&A

December 7, 2020
MIT OpenCourseWare
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31. Exam Review (Intro to Solid-State Chemistry)


The lecture covered various chemistry topics including X-rays, defects, glasses, reaction rates, solubility, and acids/bases.

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Key Insights

  • 😎 The concepts covered in the lecture include X-rays and their characteristic emissions, defects in materials, the behavior of glasses, reaction rates and equilibrium, solubility, and acids and bases.
  • ❓ Understanding the Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis definitions of acids and bases provides a more comprehensive understanding of their behavior and reactions.
  • ☠️ Experimental data and equilibrium constants can be used to determine reaction orders and rate constants.
  • 😑 The common ion effect can result in the precipitation of a solute due to the introduction of additional ions with a shared charge.


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Questions & Answers

Q: What is the most general acid-base definition according to Lewis?

According to Lewis, acid-base reactions involve electron pair transfer. A Lewis acid is an electron acceptor, while a Lewis base is an electron donor. This definition is more general than the Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry definitions, as it includes all types of acids and bases, regardless of the presence of hydrogen or hydroxide ions.

Q: How can the viscosity of a glass be affected by modifiers?

Modifiers can decrease the viscosity of a glass, making it more fluid. This is because modifiers, such as alkali metal oxides, can decrease the network-forming ability of the glass. By interrupting the bonds between glass-forming units, the viscosity is reduced, allowing for easier movement of the glass atoms and a more fluid state.

Q: What is the order of a reaction with respect to a specific reactant?

The order of a reaction with respect to a specific reactant can be determined by comparing different experiments in which the concentration of that reactant is varied while keeping other reactants constant. By observing the change in the rate of reaction, the order can be determined based on the exponent of the reactant's concentration in the rate law equation.

Q: How does the common ion effect cause precipitation?

The common ion effect occurs when the addition of a compound with an ion in common with a dissolved substance causes the equilibrium to shift towards the formation of a solid precipitate. In the example given, the addition of BaCl2 introduces additional Ba2+ ions, which react with the SO4^2- ions from the dissolved BaSO4, leading to the precipitation of BaSO4.

Summary & Key Takeaways

  • The lecture covered the topics of X-rays, including characteristic X-rays and X-ray diffraction.

  • Defects in materials, such as vacancies, interstitials, and ionic defects, were discussed, along with their activation energy.

  • Glasses were explored in terms of their volume per mole vs. temperature curves and the effects of cooling rate and modifiers.

  • Reaction rates were covered, including the determination of reaction order and rate constants based on experimental data.

  • Solubility and the common ion effect were explained through the use of equilibrium constants and ice tables.

  • The lecture concluded with a discussion on acids and bases, including acid equilibrium constants, pH, and the definitions of Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry.

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