Impact of mutations on translation into amino acids | High school biology | Khan Academy | Summary and Q&A

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February 2, 2018
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Impact of mutations on translation into amino acids | High school biology | Khan Academy

TL;DR

This video explains the processes of DNA transcription and translation, as well as the effects of point mutations and frameshift mutations on protein coding.

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Questions & Answers

Q: What is the difference between DNA transcription and translation?

DNA transcription is the process of converting DNA into RNA, while translation is the process of converting RNA into protein.

Q: How are codons used in translation?

Codons, consisting of three bases, code for specific amino acids. Different codons correspond to different amino acids according to an amino acid translation table.

Q: What happens in a point mutation?

In a point mutation, a single base is changed. This can lead to a substitution, resulting in a different amino acid being coded for.

Q: How does a frameshift mutation affect protein coding?

Frameshift mutations involve the insertion or deletion of bases, which shifts the entire reading frame. This leads to multiple changes in the amino acid sequence.

Summary & Key Takeaways

  • DNA is transcribed into RNA by replacing thymine with uracil in the RNA sequence.

  • RNA is translated into protein using codons, where each codon codes for a specific amino acid.

  • Point mutations, such as substitutions, can change specific amino acids, while frameshift mutations, caused by insertions or deletions, shift the reading frame and affect multiple amino acids.

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