The Precariat: A New Social Class Shaped by Insecurity and Inequality


Hatched by Thati

Apr 04, 2024

4 min read


The Precariat: A New Social Class Shaped by Insecurity and Inequality


In recent years, the emergence of a new social class, known as the precariat, has garnered significant attention. This class is characterized by a combination of unstable jobs, reduced labor rights, and a sense of insecurity. The precariat is internally divided into three distinct groups, each with its own set of challenges and aspirations. Furthermore, the rise of the precariat can be attributed to various factors, including technological advancements and the changing nature of work. In this article, we will explore the common points between the Pesquisa do Ibase study on the Complexo do Alemão and the insights shared by a British economist regarding the precariat. We will also delve into the unique characteristics of the precariat and discuss potential solutions to address its challenges.

The Complexo do Alemão Study:

According to the Pesquisa do Ibase study, the Complexo do Alemão neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro has a significantly higher percentage of black individuals compared to the city as a whole. This finding highlights the racial disparities within society and suggests that certain communities are disproportionately affected by the precariat. The precariat, being a diverse group consisting of different socioeconomic backgrounds, experiences high job turnover and limited labor rights. This study sheds light on the inequalities faced by marginalized communities and emphasizes the need for comprehensive solutions to address these issues.

Insights on the Precariat:

The concept of the precariat, as described by the economist, refers to a class characterized by a distinct combination of relationships. Unlike the traditional proletariat, whose identity is shaped by their role in production, distribution, and the state, the precariat struggles with unstable employment and a lack of occupational identity. The precariat is internally divided into three groups - the Atavics, the Nostalgics, and the Progressives.

The Atavics are individuals who feel excluded from the communities of the old working class and yearn for a lost past characterized by industrial capitalism and labor rights. They tend to support populist neofascist movements. The Nostalgics, on the other hand, consist mainly of immigrants and minority ethnic groups who feel disconnected from mainstream society. They long for a sense of belonging in the present. Lastly, the Progressives, who make up the educated segment of the precariat, were promised a bright future when they entered universities, only to be faced with uncertain prospects. They seek a revival of progressive policies and a renewed sense of hope.

Challenges Faced by the Precariat:

The precariat faces numerous challenges, including the lack of job security, low and unpredictable wages, and mounting debts. Moreover, the precariat is gradually losing various rights, such as civil, cultural, social, economic, and political rights. The erosion of political rights stems from the lack of representation by political parties and leaders who truly understand and advocate for the interests of the precariat. In essence, the precariat finds itself marginalized and excluded from both the economic and political spheres.

The Role of Technology in Precariat Formation:

The revolutionary advancements in technology have played a significant role in the rise of the precariat. Technological innovations have facilitated the fragmentation of employment structures and enabled corporations to shift their workforce divisions. This has resulted in increased job turnover and a lack of stability for workers. Additionally, employers and the state often demand flexibility from workers, which translates into continuous social and economic insecurity for millions of people. The rise of the gig economy, exemplified by platforms like Uber, further exacerbates the precariousness of work.

Potential Solutions for the Precariat:

Addressing the challenges faced by the precariat requires comprehensive and innovative solutions. One potential solution is the implementation of a universal basic income, which would provide every individual with a stable income throughout their lives. This would allow those who are tired or in need of a break from traditional employment to have the opportunity to pursue flexibility on their own terms. A universal basic income is justified not only from an ethical and philosophical standpoint but also as a means of promoting social justice and providing a necessary safety net for all individuals.

Furthermore, the precariat must unite and engage in collective action to demand their rights and challenge the structures that perpetuate inequality. By forming alliances with labor unions, grassroots organizations, and progressive political movements, the precariat can amplify its voice and advocate for policies that address their concerns.


The rise of the precariat represents a significant challenge to society, as it highlights the growing inequalities and insecurities faced by a diverse group of individuals. Through the insights gained from the Pesquisa do Ibase study and the economist's analysis, we can identify commonalities and understand the unique characteristics of the precariat. By implementing solutions such as a universal basic income and promoting collective action, we can strive towards a more equitable and inclusive society, where the precariat is no longer marginalized or excluded.

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