The Pursuit of Truth and Justice: Exploring Universal Principles and Human Perceptions

Lucas Charbonnier

Hatched by Lucas Charbonnier

Apr 01, 2024

6 min read


The Pursuit of Truth and Justice: Exploring Universal Principles and Human Perceptions


In our quest for understanding the world around us, two fundamental concepts shape our perception of reality: truth and justice. While truth refers to the accurate correspondence between a representation and what it represents, justice involves the pursuit of an ideal order where everyone receives what they are due. In this article, we will delve into the nature of truth and justice, exploring their definitions, their relationship with human perceptions, and the challenges they pose in our ever-changing world.

The Nature of Truth:

Truth can be divided into two categories: logical, universal truths, such as those found in mathematics, and factual truths that derive from sensory observations of the real world, particularly in scientific endeavors. While logical truths remain constant and unaffected by reality, factual truths are provisional, as they are subject to the ever-changing nature of our understanding. It is crucial to question scientific truths when new discoveries challenge existing paradigms, as they are limited by the knowledge available at a given time. Therefore, while definitive truths exist, they are limited to logical and universal domains, and factual truths require constant reevaluation.

Criteria for Establishing Truth:

To ascertain truth, reliable criteria must be employed. Evident truths, which appear so clear to the mind that doubt is impossible, are one such criterion. However, evident truths can be deceptive and highly subjective. The rigor of reasoning provides another means of guaranteeing certainty, as the very structure of a sound argument ensures its validity. Empirical verification through the observation of facts is also essential for establishing truths about the external world. Furthermore, placing trust in credible sources becomes necessary, as it is impossible to personally verify everything. However, the reliability of these criteria is not without limitations, as we shall explore further.

The Dogmatism-Skepticism Dichotomy:

Dogmatism, the belief that we can attain certainty and escape doubt, relies on the aforementioned criteria for truth. However, this dogmatic circle, unable to prove its own proof, forms the basis of skepticism. Skepticism asserts that absolute criteria for truth do not exist, and it rejects our claim to definitive knowledge. Instead, skepticism advocates for the relentless pursuit of truth through the progressive elimination of falsehoods and a deeper understanding of our errors. It recognizes that knowledge, as true thought, can never perfectly correspond to reality, as the complexity of the world surpasses our comprehension. While no knowledge can fully align with truth, it contains elements of truth that can increase through scientific progress.

The Nature of Error:

Error, from a moral standpoint, is neutral. What is critiquable is persisting in error despite evidence to the contrary. It is important to differentiate error from illusion, which involves mistaking desires for reality. Merely presenting evidence may not always shatter illusory beliefs, as individuals often cling to comforting or beneficial illusions. Consequently, the pursuit of truth necessitates a reasonable love for truth that allows us to recognize our errors and critique our own opinions. Nietzsche posited that Socrates' search for truth was fueled by repressed hatred, leading to his neglect of the corporeal aspects of existence. This raises questions regarding the extent to which we should prioritize truth and the potential conflict with other values.

The Relationship Between Truth and Illusion:

Does the pursuit of truth require an absolute rejection of all illusions? Can the search for truth itself be free from illusions? Rejecting all illusions seems vital in the effort to comprehend reality. However, must we not accept that an erroneous or simplified image of reality can aid in understanding and, ultimately, liberation from illusions? Does the search for truth genuinely permit no illusions, or does it allow for certain illusions that may assist in its pursuit? These questions highlight the complex relationship between truth and illusion, warranting further exploration.

Understanding Justice and Law:

Justice, as an institution, refers to the judicial power, while law encompasses the laws established by humans to regulate social relations. However, justice and law can also be understood as norms, values, or moral requirements. Justice, in its ideal form, represents an order where individuals receive precisely what they deserve, while the pursuit of justice entails a resolute commitment to defending this deemed legitimate order. In this sense, justice becomes the norm for law, rather than the other way around. Consequently, justice can be viewed as either positive justice, ensuring the proper application of established laws, or as natural justice, embodying equality and fairness. The latter refers to unwritten laws considered just and inalienable.

Self-Justice and the Role of Vengeance:

Can individuals administer justice to themselves? Is seeking revenge always justifiable? True justice necessitates renouncing vengeance and entrusting one's fate to the judgment of an impartial third party, such as a judge. Seeking self-justice by resorting to force makes one both judge and party, perpetuating the cycle of conflict. Legal punishment, on the other hand, relies on the generality of the law, treating everyone equally, and the decision of an impartial judge, avoiding the pitfalls of revenge. The aim of legal punishment should be reparation and improvement, rather than inflicting suffering.

The Ethics of Violence:

Does violence serve as a remedy for injustice? Violence, as an excessive use of force, can be justified, both legally and morally, when rights are violated. Is it morally justifiable to oppose an unjust order through violence? Justice itself condemns violence, as it represents a transition from the cycle of vengeance to a realm governed by laws. The judge can only intervene when the weapons fall silent. Violence perpetuates conflict, as the offended party becomes an offender in turn. Thus, only legal punishment, grounded in impartiality, can pacify human relations.


In the pursuit of truth and justice, we encounter the complexities of human perception, the limitations of our knowledge, and the moral dilemmas inherent in the search for certainty. By critically examining the nature of truth, the criteria for establishing it, and the challenges it poses, we can approach a more nuanced understanding of reality. Similarly, exploring the multifaceted nature of justice and law enables us to navigate the tensions between personal and societal notions of justice. Ultimately, a balanced pursuit of truth and justice requires a willingness to acknowledge errors, critique our own beliefs, and seek objective truth while recognizing the limitations of human perception and the potential benefits of well-founded illusions.

Actionable Advice:

  • 1. Embrace a critical mindset: Question existing truths and be open to new discoveries that may challenge your beliefs. Recognize that provisional truths are subject to change as our understanding evolves.
  • 2. Seek multiple sources of information: Rely on diverse and trustworthy sources to form a more comprehensive understanding of complex topics. Avoid relying solely on personal biases or limited perspectives.
  • 3. Foster a culture of dialogue and empathy: Engage in respectful conversations with others, even when opinions differ. Actively listen and try to understand alternative viewpoints, as this can broaden your perspective and contribute to a more just and inclusive society.

By incorporating these actionable advice into our lives, we can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of truth and justice, both at a personal and societal level.

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