The Illusion of Freedom: Exploring the Notions of Liberty

Lucas Charbonnier

Hatched by Lucas Charbonnier

Sep 11, 2023

4 min read


The Illusion of Freedom: Exploring the Notions of Liberty


In recent news, it was reported that Germany's GDP stagnated in the first quarter, with no growth compared to the previous quarter. This economic standstill raises questions about the concept of freedom and its existence. Is freedom merely an illusion? In this article, we will delve into different perspectives on freedom and explore the common points that connect them.

I. The Human Capacity for Free Will:

One fundamental aspect of freedom lies in the human capacity for free will. Christianity, for instance, bases moral freedom on the concept of free will, which allows individuals to choose between good and evil. This ability to make choices determines one's responsibility for their actions. Without free will, choices would be predetermined, absolving individuals of culpability. The philosopher Leibniz argues that by creating the best possible world, God made humans free, making them accountable for their actions. Thus, human freedom enhances the perfection of the world and absolves God from any guilt.

II. Different Facets of Liberty:

Within the realm of free will, René Descartes distinguishes between two types of liberty. The first is the "liberty of evidence," where individuals are naturally inclined to submit to evidence. Here, the understanding guides the will, and the individual chooses truth. The second aspect, known as the "liberty of indifference," grants complete freedom to the will in the absence of evident truth. This form of liberty, however, leads to doubt and indecision. Descartes favors the "liberty of evidence" because it allows individuals to clearly see the best course of action and follow it without hesitation.

III. Spinoza's Perspective: The Illusion of Free Will:

Philosopher Baruch Spinoza challenges the notion of free will, dismissing it as an illusion. He argues that individuals believe they are free because they are conscious of their actions but unaware of the causes that determine them. This ignorance of underlying causes creates the illusion of freedom. For example, an alcoholic may believe they drink because the wine is good, when in reality, unconscious factors such as addiction or sadness drive their behavior. Spinoza believes true freedom lies in understanding the causes that influence our actions, enabling us to act more rationally and preserve our well-being.

IV. Kant's Postulate: The Necessity of Free Will:

Immanuel Kant reestablishes the importance of free will as a foundation for morality. He argues that the freedom to choose between good and evil must stem from the autonomy of the will. It is not about doing what one desires but acting in accordance with what reason universally demands of all individuals. Kant identifies three postulates of practical reason: the existence of God, the immortality of the soul, and freedom. These postulates are necessary conditions for the possibility of moral practice.

Connecting the Dots:

Despite the differing perspectives on freedom, there are common threads that emerge. Both Leibniz and Kant highlight the importance of free will in establishing moral responsibility. Descartes and Spinoza, although taking different stances, emphasize the role of understanding and knowledge in attaining true freedom. The notion of choice, whether guided by evidence or influenced by causes, remains a central element in discussions of freedom.

Actionable Advice:

  • 1. Foster self-awareness: Reflect on your own actions and motivations to gain a deeper understanding of the factors that drive your choices. This self-awareness can help you make more conscious decisions and exercise your freedom more responsibly.
  • 2. Seek knowledge: Strive to acquire knowledge about the forces that shape your behavior. By understanding the underlying causes and influences, you can make more informed choices and exercise your freedom with greater rationality.
  • 3. Embrace moral autonomy: Recognize that true freedom lies in aligning your actions with universal moral principles. Act not solely based on personal desires but in accordance with what reason demands of all individuals. Embracing moral autonomy allows you to make choices that contribute to the greater good.


The concept of freedom is complex and multifaceted, as demonstrated by the various perspectives discussed. While Germany's stagnant GDP may raise concerns about economic freedom, the philosophical exploration of freedom delves deeper into the realms of moral responsibility, knowledge, and choice. By fostering self-awareness, seeking knowledge, and embracing moral autonomy, individuals can navigate the complexities of freedom and make conscious choices that contribute to personal growth and the betterment of society.

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