The Role of Conscience in Morality and the Ultimate Method for Succeeding in Text Synthesis

Lucas Charbonnier

Hatched by Lucas Charbonnier

Jun 11, 2024

4 min read


The Role of Conscience in Morality and the Ultimate Method for Succeeding in Text Synthesis

The question of whether conscience forms the basis of morality has been a topic of philosophical debate for centuries. As French writer Rabelais once said, "knowledge without conscience is but the ruin of the soul." This suggests that knowledge alone holds no value and can be used for both good and evil. Conscience, therefore, joins forces with knowledge to judge and guide not only our actions but also the actions of others. But is conscience truly our inner judge?

According to Immanuel Kant, moral conscience is rooted in reason and good will. Reason dictates that every moral action must adhere to a universal form, known as the categorical imperative. Good will, on the other hand, chooses the good based on pure intentions that are unselfish and selfless in nature. Kant believed that these two elements form the foundation of moral conscience.

However, Friedrich Nietzsche had a different perspective on moral conscience. He argued that moral conscience consists of feelings of guilt and resentment that weaken the strong. Nietzsche believed that these sentiments convince the powerful that their strength is inherently evil. In his view, moral conscience is a hindrance to individual power and greatness.

Émile Durkheim and Sigmund Freud viewed conscience as a product of conditioning. Durkheim suggested that conscience is the internalization of societal rules, which vary from one society to another. On the other hand, Freud proposed that moral conscience is the result of an education system that suppresses and represses societal-condemned desires and impulses. Freud referred to this conscience as the "ego." If moral conscience is indeed a product of conditioning, it becomes contingent and relative, losing the universal requirement that Kant demands of it.

Now, let's shift our focus to the ultimate method for succeeding in text synthesis. The process begins with the formulation of secondary questions. By highlighting the arguments and ideas in each text, using different colors for each idea, you can easily identify the main points. It is important to confront the main ideas first. By circling the three main ideas of the first text with three different colors, you can then look at the ideas in the second text and circle the one that corresponds to the first idea of the first text with the same color. This process continues until all the main ideas are connected.

Organizing the structure of the synthesis is crucial. Each color represents a paragraph, and the summarized idea should be clear and concise, consisting of 8 to 15 words. The three secondary questions ultimately form the outline for the synthesis. It is important to ensure that the main question encompasses all the secondary questions while remaining precise and focused.

When it comes to the actual writing of the synthesis, it is recommended to keep each paragraph to around 80 words, getting straight to the point and conveying the thoughts of the authors. Avoid excessive quoting and instead focus on summarizing their ideas. Counting the words and placing a mark every 50 or 100 words can help you keep track of the length. The entire process, including the initial reading, the organization of ideas, the elaboration of the plan and secondary questions, and the actual writing, should take around 4 hours.

The main challenge of text synthesis lies in choosing the primary and secondary questions. It is crucial to ensure that the primary question encompasses all the others and that the secondary questions align properly. Pay attention to the overall movement of the author's thoughts or the main objective of the text. In the context of a general knowledge test, it is helpful to incorporate words from the titles and texts into the questions to avoid going off-topic. Additionally, when writing the paragraphs of the synthesis, it is important to rephrase as much as possible.

In conclusion, the debate surrounding the role of conscience in morality is multifaceted. While Kant argues that conscience is rooted in reason and good will, Nietzsche sees it as a weakening force, and Durkheim and Freud view it as a product of conditioning. Regardless of these differing perspectives, conscience plays a crucial role in guiding our moral actions. In terms of text synthesis, the ultimate method involves carefully formulating secondary and primary questions, organizing the structure, and succinctly summarizing the ideas of the authors. By following these actionable pieces of advice, one can excel in the art of text synthesis and effectively convey the essence of multiple texts.

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