The Illusion of Freedom: Exploring the Complexities of Human Agency and Consciousness

Lucas Charbonnier

Hatched by Lucas Charbonnier

Dec 16, 2023

5 min read


The Illusion of Freedom: Exploring the Complexities of Human Agency and Consciousness


In the realm of philosophy, the concept of freedom has always been a subject of profound contemplation. From the theological perspectives of Christianity to the rationalist philosophies of thinkers like Descartes, Spinoza, and Kant, the question of whether freedom is an illusion or a fundamental aspect of human existence has sparked intense debate. In this article, we delve into the intricate nature of freedom, exploring the connections between human agency and consciousness.

The Intersection of Freedom and Responsibility:

Christianity, with its emphasis on free will, asserts that moral freedom stems from the ability to choose between good and evil. According to this perspective, I can be judged innocent or guilty of sins based on my choices. If my actions were predetermined, I would not be held responsible, and ultimately, God would shoulder the blame for my transgressions. Philosopher Leibniz further elaborates on this by suggesting that God, in creating the best of all possible worlds, made humans free to make them accountable for their actions. With human freedom, the world becomes more perfect, and God remains blameless.

Descartes' Notion of Freedom:

Within the concept of free will, Descartes distinguishes between two types of freedom. The first, known as "freedom of evidence," implies that I am naturally inclined to submit to what is evident. In this framework, free will chooses truth, and the will follows the understanding. While evidence guides the will, it does not strictly determine it, allowing for the preservation of freedom in decision-making. On the other hand, "freedom of indifference" grants complete liberty to the will in the absence of evident truth. This represents the lowest degree of action as it leaves us in doubt and indecision without a resolution. Descartes, therefore, favors "freedom of evidence," as it enables clear discernment of the best course of action, eliminating hesitation.

Spinoza's Denunciation of Free Will:

In contrast to the perspectives discussed thus far, Spinoza contends that free will is nothing more than an illusion. He argues, "Men believe themselves to be free simply because they are conscious of their actions and ignorant of the causes by which they are determined." According to Spinoza, the ignorance of these causes is the source of the illusion of freedom. An individual may believe they drink wine because it tastes good, unaware that unconscious factors such as addiction or sadness compel them to do so. Spinoza suggests that true freedom lies in understanding the causes that determine our actions, such as external forces, desires, and passions. This knowledge allows us to act more rationally and preserve our own existence.

Kant's Postulate of Free Will:

Kant, aiming to establish a foundation for morality, reinstates the necessity of free will. He argues that the freedom to choose between good and evil must be an autonomy of the will. It is not about doing what I want but rather acting in accordance with what reason universally demands of every human being. Kant identifies the existence of God, the immortality of the soul, and freedom as the three postulates of practical reason. Without these principles, morality becomes impossible. Kant's perspective highlights the indispensability of free will in our moral decision-making process.

The Essence of Consciousness:

Shifting our focus to the concept of consciousness, we explore its etymology. The Latin term "cum-scire" signifies "knowing with." Consequently, consciousness can be understood as a reflective return to oneself, enabling the comprehension of the unity between one's thoughts and actions. It allows us to know that we know or to be aware of what we do. The intricate nature of consciousness lies in its ability to provide us with a deeper understanding of ourselves.

Connecting the Threads:

Examining the commonalities among these philosophical perspectives, we find that the illusion or reality of freedom is closely intertwined with our capacity for self-awareness. Christianity emphasizes the freedom of choice and its connection to moral responsibility, while Descartes distinguishes between freedom based on evident truth and freedom in the absence of such truth. Spinoza, however, challenges the notion of free will, attributing it to ignorance of the causes that determine our actions. Finally, Kant reiterates the indispensability of free will for moral decision-making. In all these discussions, consciousness serves as the fabric that weaves together our perceptions of freedom and our understanding of ourselves.

Actionable Advice:

  • 1. Cultivate self-reflection: Engaging in introspection and regularly reflecting on our thoughts, actions, and motivations can enhance self-awareness and deepen our understanding of freedom.
  • 2. Seek knowledge: Embrace a thirst for knowledge and strive to understand the various factors that influence our decision-making processes. By grasping the causes that determine our actions, we can navigate our lives more consciously and rationally.
  • 3. Embrace moral autonomy: Recognize the significance of making choices in accordance with reason and universal moral principles. Act not solely based on personal desires but rather in alignment with what is universally demanded by reason for the betterment of oneself and society as a whole.


The concept of freedom continues to be a subject of deep contemplation and debate in philosophy. While various perspectives exist, exploring the connections between freedom, consciousness, and self-awareness sheds light on the intricate nature of human agency. By embracing self-reflection, seeking knowledge, and embracing moral autonomy, we can navigate the complexities of freedom and make informed choices that align with our higher values. Ultimately, the pursuit of freedom lies not only in understanding its philosophical underpinnings but also in our ongoing journey of self-discovery and growth.

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