The Intersection of Keynesian Economics and Audit Procedures

André Gonçalves de Freitas

Hatched by André Gonçalves de Freitas

Apr 08, 2024

3 min read


The Intersection of Keynesian Economics and Audit Procedures


The economic theory coined by renowned economist John Maynard Keynes revolutionized the way governments interact with the economy. Keynesian economics introduced the idea of utilizing the public budget as an instrument of fiscal policy, which contrasted with prevailing economic concepts at the time. This doctrine emphasized the government's ability to intervene and stimulate the economy through increased public spending during times of recession. On the other hand, during economic expansion, the government could use the budget as a tool to prevent overheating. This approach, known as expansionary fiscal policy, aimed to boost aggregate demand, production, and employment. This article explores the connection between Keynesian economics and audit procedures, highlighting the common points and providing actionable advice for auditors.

Connection 1: Risk Assessment and Government Intervention:

The audit procedures outlined in the NBC TA 315 (R1) A75 highlight the importance of evaluating the risk associated with the design and implementation of relevant controls. Similarly, Keynesian economics emphasizes the need for government intervention to stabilize the economy and avoid significant fluctuations in the economic cycle. Auditors can draw parallels between assessing risk in financial statements and the risks inherent in economic policies. By understanding the potential impact of government interventions, auditors can better assess the overall risk landscape and tailor their audit procedures accordingly.

Connection 2: Multiplying Effects and Economic Equilibrium:

Keynesian economics introduces the concept of the multiplier effect, which explains how changes in aggregate demand can lead to amplified changes in income and output. In the same vein, auditors must consider the ripple effects of their procedures and findings. Just as an increase in government spending can stimulate the economy, auditors' recommendations and insights can have a multiplier effect on improving controls and processes within an organization. By recognizing the potential for multiplying effects in both economics and auditing, auditors can better communicate the significance and long-term impact of their findings.

Connection 3: Propensity to Consume and Taxation:

Keynesian economics places importance on the propensity to consume as a driver of economic growth. Similarly, auditors must consider the financial behaviors and patterns within an organization. Understanding the propensity to consume can help auditors assess the accuracy and reliability of financial statements, particularly in relation to revenue recognition and expense management. Additionally, auditors should be aware of the impact of taxation on economic activity. Analyzing the tax structure and its effect on an organization's financial performance can provide valuable insights for auditors and help them identify potential risks or areas of concern.

Actionable Advice for Auditors:

  • 1. Incorporate a macroeconomic perspective: Auditors should consider the economic environment in which an organization operates. Understanding the impact of government policies and economic trends can help auditors identify potential risks and tailor their audit procedures accordingly.
  • 2. Analyze financial patterns and behaviors: Auditors should delve deeper into an organization's financial data to identify patterns and behaviors related to consumption, investment, and government spending. This analysis can provide valuable insights into the reliability of financial statements and the overall financial health of the organization.
  • 3. Stay informed about economic theories and policies: Auditors should keep themselves updated on economic theories, such as Keynesian economics, and government policies that may impact their audit engagements. This knowledge will enable auditors to provide more informed recommendations and insights to their clients.


The intersection of Keynesian economics and audit procedures highlights the importance of considering the broader economic context when evaluating financial statements. By recognizing the commonalities between these two areas, auditors can enhance their risk assessment procedures, understand the multiplying effects of their findings, and gain insights into financial behaviors and taxation. Incorporating these insights into their audit approach will enable auditors to provide more valuable and comprehensive services to their clients.

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