The Impact of Macroeconomic Conditions on Nigerian Banks and Measures to Curb Inflation

Feranmi Olaseinde

Hatched by Feranmi Olaseinde

Jan 22, 2024

3 min read


The Impact of Macroeconomic Conditions on Nigerian Banks and Measures to Curb Inflation


Nigerian banks have been facing significant challenges due to macroeconomic conditions, resulting in substantial loan losses. The total value of impaired loans, including Ecobank, reached N748 billion in the first half of the year. This article explores the reasons behind these losses and discusses the steps taken to curb inflation by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). Additionally, we will delve into the impact of cutting money supply and the allocation of federal revenue to address these issues.

The Impact of Macroeconomic Conditions on Nigerian Banks:

To combat spiraling inflation, the CBN has raised key interest rates, reaching a 15-year peak of 18.75%. This decision has been driven by the need to mitigate the risk of customer defaults, leading banks to increase their impairment charges to safeguard against potential future losses. The CBN has also taken into account recent foreign exchange (FX) policy changes that could result in regulatory breaches, such as exceeding Single Obligor Limits (SOL) and Net Open Position (NOP) limits. As a mitigating measure, the central bank has offered forbearance to banks that exceed these limits due to policy changes, provided they apply for it. These measures aim to stabilize the banking sector and restore financial stability.

Measures to Curb Inflation:

The Federal Government of Nigeria has recognized the urgency of curbing rising inflation and has proposed cutting the cash in circulation. The Minister of Finance and Coordinating Minister for the Economy, Mr. Wale Edun, has highlighted the need to control the growth of money supply through various monetary measures. These measures may include adjusting interest rates, conducting open market operations, and setting reserve requirements for banks. On the fiscal side, responsible disbursement of funds by the federal, state, and local governments is essential. Striking a balance between ensuring adequate money supply for economic growth and preventing excessive inflation is crucial for monetary stability and economic prosperity.

Allocation of Federal Revenue:

In efforts to address the economic challenges, the Federal Accounts Allocation Committee (FAAC) agreed to share N966.11 billion as federal allocation to the three tiers of government. The Federal Government received N374.48 billion, while the state and local governments received N310.67 billion and N229.41 billion, respectively. The total revenue was derived from statutory revenue, Value Added Tax (VAT) revenue, Electronic Money Transfer Levy (EMTL) revenue, and Exchange Difference revenue. This allocation aims to support the financial needs of the government and facilitate the implementation of measures to combat inflation and stabilize the economy.

Actionable Advice:

  • 1. Diversify Loan Portfolios: Nigerian banks should focus on diversifying their loan portfolios to reduce the risk of excessive exposure to specific sectors or industries. This strategy can help mitigate potential losses during adverse macroeconomic conditions.
  • 2. Strengthen Risk Management: Robust risk management practices are essential for banks to navigate challenging economic conditions effectively. Banks should invest in advanced risk assessment tools and regularly update their risk management frameworks to identify and mitigate potential risks promptly.
  • 3. Promote Financial Literacy: Educating customers about financial literacy can enhance their understanding of responsible borrowing and repayment. This can reduce the likelihood of default and improve the overall credit quality of banks' loan portfolios.


The impact of macroeconomic conditions on Nigerian banks has led to significant loan losses. The CBN's efforts to curb inflation through interest rate hikes and policy adjustments aim to stabilize the banking sector. Concurrently, the Federal Government's plans to cut money supply and allocate federal revenue strategically demonstrate their commitment to addressing economic challenges. By implementing actionable advice such as diversifying loan portfolios, strengthening risk management, and promoting financial literacy, Nigerian banks can navigate these turbulent times and emerge stronger.

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