Measuring Network Effects: Key Metrics for Business Growth


Hatched by Glasp

Jul 25, 2023

4 min read


Measuring Network Effects: Key Metrics for Business Growth


Network effects play a crucial role in determining the success and growth of a business. As more people use a product or service, its value increases, attracting even more users. To effectively leverage network effects, businesses must measure and track relevant metrics. In this article, we will explore various actionable metrics to measure network effects and drive sustainable growth.

Acquisition-Related Metrics:

  • 1. Organic vs. paid users: The percentage of organic users relative to paid users should increase over time. As the network expands and becomes more valuable, more users should join organically, reducing the need for paid acquisition. Companies like Facebook and Uber initially invest in paid acquisition but gradually shift towards organic growth once critical mass is achieved.
  • 2. Sources of traffic: It is essential to analyze how much traffic and transactions on the network are generated internally versus from external sources. A higher proportion of direct traffic suggests that users find the network increasingly valuable as it grows. Medium, for example, experienced a greater percentage of read time originating from within the site as the network expanded.
  • 3. Time series of paid CAC: Customer acquisition cost should ideally decline over time as network effects accelerate. However, factors such as market competitiveness and availability of substitutes can influence paid CAC. Understanding the relationship between network effects and paid CAC helps optimize marketing strategies.

Competitor-Related Metrics:

  • 4. Prevalence of multi-tenanting: Analyzing how many users also use similar services can provide insights into product improvements. By understanding user overlap, businesses can introduce features that reduce the temptation to switch to competitors. For instance, ride-sharing companies introduced subscriptions and driver bonuses to boost retention and reduce usage of competing services.
  • 5. Switching or multi-homing costs: Evaluating how easy it is for users to join a new network or gain value from a different network helps assess network stickiness. Lower switching costs indicate higher user loyalty, reinforcing the strength of network effects.

Engagement-Related Metrics:

  • 6. User retention cohorts: Newer cohorts should exhibit better retention as the network becomes larger and more useful. Early adopters, who are often the most ideal customers, contribute to better retention cohorts for older customers. Analyzing user retention cohorts helps identify the impact of network effects on user behavior.
  • 7. Core action retention cohorts: Measuring retention based on users taking core actions within the product provides a more accurate reflection of network effects. It helps identify whether users are engaging with the network and deriving value from it.
  • 8. Dollar retention & paid user retention cohorts: Subscription and paid products should focus on dollar retention and paid user retention. Assessing how newer cohorts retain in terms of revenue compared to older cohorts helps determine the long-term sustainability of the business.
  • 9. Retention by location/geography: For businesses with local network effects, comparing user retention between older and newer markets provides insights into market maturity and user loyalty.
  • 10. Power user curves: Tracking user engagement over time helps determine whether users are becoming more engaged. Moving towards the right side of the power user curve indicates increasing network value and user satisfaction.

Marketplace Metrics:

  • 11. Match rate: The ability of two sides of a marketplace to find each other is crucial for its success. Analyzing match rates helps evaluate the efficiency of the marketplace. For example, in ride-sharing, driver utilization time and the success rate of filling job postings in job marketplaces are key match rate indicators.
  • 12. Market depth: Market depth refers to the ability of a marketplace to sustain large orders without price movements. It impacts user experience and search costs. Heterogeneous supply marketplaces have greater potential for network effects compared to homogeneous supply marketplaces.
  • 13. Time to find a match: Evaluating how long it takes for supply and demand to match provides insights into the efficiency of the marketplace. Faster matching indicates stronger network effects.
  • 14. Concentration or fragmentation of supply and demand: Understanding the concentration or fragmentation of supply and demand helps assess market dynamics. Concentrated marketplaces may have higher barriers to entry, while fragmented ones may indicate opportunities for consolidation.

Economics-Related Metrics:

  • 15. Pricing power: The ability to charge higher prices indicates the value users perceive in the network. Assessing pricing power helps determine the network's sustainability and growth potential.
  • 16. Unit economics: Improved unit economics over time demonstrate the impact of network effects. As network effects strengthen, businesses experience declining incentives to different sides of the market, a lower share of paid users, and an overall improvement in pricing power.


Measuring network effects is crucial for businesses seeking sustainable growth. By tracking and analyzing relevant metrics, companies can leverage the power of network effects to create value for users and their business. To effectively harness network effects, businesses should focus on organic growth, reduce switching costs, enhance user engagement, optimize marketplace efficiency, and ensure favorable economics. By prioritizing these metrics, businesses can drive growth and stay ahead in today's interconnected world.

Actionable Advice:

  • 1. Prioritize organic growth by investing in strategies that attract more users organically, reducing reliance on paid acquisition.
  • 2. Enhance user engagement by continuously improving the core actions and value users derive from the network.
  • 3. Optimize marketplace efficiency by reducing search costs and improving match rates, ensuring a seamless experience for users and suppliers.

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