A Comprehensive Guide to Running Virtual Machines with KVM, QEMU, and OVMF

Honyee Chua

Hatched by Honyee Chua

Aug 03, 2023

3 min read


A Comprehensive Guide to Running Virtual Machines with KVM, QEMU, and OVMF


Virtualization has become an essential technology in today's computing world, allowing users to run multiple operating systems on a single physical machine. In this guide, we will explore the power of KVM and QEMU, along with the benefits of OVMF's PCI passthrough, to create a seamless virtualization platform. Whether you want to run Linux, MacOS, Windows, or even indulge in gaming, this guide aims to provide you with a comprehensive understanding of setting up and optimizing your virtual machines.

Understanding KVM and QEMU:

KVM, which stands for Kernel-based Virtual Machine, is a powerful open-source virtualization solution for Linux. It provides a hypervisor that allows you to create and manage virtual machines efficiently. QEMU, on the other hand, is a generic and open-source machine emulator and virtualizer that works in conjunction with KVM. Together, KVM and QEMU provide a robust and flexible virtualization platform.

Setting Up Your Virtualization Platform:

To begin setting up your virtualization platform, you will need to ensure that your system meets the necessary hardware requirements. It is crucial to have a CPU that supports virtualization extensions, such as Intel VT-x or AMD-V. Additionally, enabling these extensions in your system's BIOS settings is essential. Once you have confirmed hardware compatibility, you can proceed with installing KVM and QEMU on your Linux distribution of choice.

Optimizing Performance with OVMF:

OVMF, or Open Virtual Machine Firmware, is an open-source implementation of the Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI). It plays a vital role in improving the performance and compatibility of virtual machines. One of the standout features of OVMF is its ability to facilitate PCI passthrough, allowing direct access to physical hardware from within a virtual machine. This feature is particularly useful for tasks that require high-performance hardware, such as gaming or GPU-intensive applications.

Implementing PCI Passthrough with OVMF:

To utilize the power of PCI passthrough, you need to identify the hardware you wish to pass through to the virtual machine. This can include graphics cards, network adapters, or even USB controllers. By assigning these devices to a specific virtual machine, you can achieve near-native performance, as the VM gains direct access to the hardware, bypassing the hypervisor. However, it is crucial to research compatibility and potential limitations before attempting PCI passthrough.

Fine-tuning Your Virtual Machines:

Once your virtual machines are up and running, there are several optimization techniques that can enhance their performance. Firstly, allocating an appropriate amount of CPU cores and memory to each VM can prevent resource bottlenecks. Additionally, enabling virtio drivers, which provide paravirtualized drivers for network and storage devices, can significantly improve I/O performance. Lastly, regularly updating your KVM and QEMU versions can ensure you benefit from the latest features and bug fixes.

Actionable Advice:

  • 1. Perform thorough research on hardware compatibility and limitations before attempting PCI passthrough to avoid potential issues.
  • 2. Regularly update your KVM and QEMU versions to benefit from the latest improvements and bug fixes.
  • 3. Experiment with different CPU and memory allocations for your virtual machines to find the optimal balance between performance and resource utilization.


Virtualization with KVM, QEMU, and OVMF opens up a world of possibilities for running multiple operating systems and applications on a single machine. By following the steps outlined in this guide, you can create a fully functional virtualization platform that caters to your specific needs. Remember to research hardware compatibility, optimize performance through CPU and memory allocation, and stay up to date with the latest software updates. With the right approach, you can harness the power of virtualization and unlock endless possibilities.

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