"Connecting the Dots: Exploring the Keynesian Approach to Economic Policy"

André Gonçalves de Freitas

André Gonçalves de Freitas

Mar 29, 20243 min read


"Connecting the Dots: Exploring the Keynesian Approach to Economic Policy"


The Keynesian doctrine, named after renowned British economist John Maynard Keynes, revolutionized the way governments interact with the economy. This doctrine introduced the idea that the public budget could be used as a fiscal policy instrument, contrasting with prevailing economic concepts at the time. Keynes argued that during times of economic recession, the government could intervene and stimulate the economy through increased public spending. Conversely, during economic expansion, the government could utilize the public budget to prevent overheating. These interventions are aimed at stabilizing the economy and avoiding drastic fluctuations in the economic cycle.

The Keynesian Model and Aggregate Demand:

According to the Keynesian theory, aggregate supply is horizontal with rigid prices and wages. In the simple Keynesian model, which includes consumption, investment, government, and the external sector, the spending multiplier increases when...

In a closed economy, with autonomous investment and autonomous government spending both equal to 10, and a marginal propensity to consume (MPC) equal to 40% of income, the equilibrium income in the model and the tax rate applied to income will be...

The Impact of Changes in Marginal Propensities:

Considering the Keynesian model with consumption, investment, government, and the external sector, an increase in the marginal propensity to import and a reduction in the marginal propensity to consume...

The Role of Menu Costs in the New Keynesian Theory:

According to the New Keynesian theory, menu costs explain...

The Adjustment Mechanism in Keynesian Economics:

According to Keynesian logic, if there is excess demand in the goods market, the adjustment occurs solely through an increase in quantity produced and income. Assuming the Keynesian model of income determination with consumption, investment, and government, the equilibrium income will be higher when...

Connecting the Common Points:

While exploring the various aspects of the Keynesian approach to economic policy, we find several common points that tie these ideas together. The fundamental idea behind Keynesian economics is that government intervention through fiscal policy can help stabilize the economy during periods of recession or expansion. By adjusting public spending and taxes, the government can influence aggregate demand, which in turn affects production, employment, and income levels.

Actionable Advice:

1. During times of economic recession, governments can consider implementing expansionary fiscal policies by increasing public spending and/or reducing taxes to stimulate demand and boost economic activity.

2. In periods of economic expansion, governments can adopt contractionary fiscal policies by reducing public spending and/or increasing taxes to prevent overheating and control inflation.

3. It is crucial for policymakers to carefully analyze the marginal propensities to consume and import, as changes in these factors can have significant implications for the equilibrium income and overall economic stability.


The Keynesian approach to economic policy has had a profound impact on how governments navigate economic cycles. By utilizing the public budget as a fiscal policy instrument, policymakers can influence aggregate demand and stabilize the economy. Understanding the key concepts and mechanisms of the Keynesian model can help guide policymakers in making informed decisions to promote sustainable economic growth and stability.

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