The Relationship Between Technique and Science

Lucas Charbonnier

Lucas Charbonnier

Feb 01, 20244 min read

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The Relationship Between Technique and Science

Title: Exploring the Interplay Between Technique and Science

Introduction:

The relationship between technique and science has long been a topic of debate. Some argue that technique is merely an application of scientific knowledge, while others believe that technique predates science and is essential for its development. In this article, we will delve into these perspectives and explore how technique and science enrich each other.

Technique Precedes Science:

Historically, technique has preceded science, with the survival instincts of humans driving the development of various techniques. This is evident in the fact that humans were homo faber, toolmakers, before becoming homo sapiens, individuals seeking knowledge. For example, in the field of medicine, the practice of trepanation (creating a hole in the skull) was common in the Neolithic era, despite the lack of scientific knowledge about cranial anatomy and brain mechanisms.

The Role of Science in Improving Technique:

While technique may precede science, it is through science that the shortcomings of technique can be addressed. The trial-and-error nature of pre-scientific techniques often led to failures and unsatisfactory results. As humans sought to understand the reasons behind these failures, scientific research was born. Science provides solutions to the difficulties encountered in technique, leading to advancements and improvements. For instance, the invention of the laser, a scientific achievement, has revolutionized various techniques across multiple industries.

The Interdependence of Technique and Science:

Technique and science are not independent entities but rather mutually enriching domains. Science contributes to the success of technique by providing the knowledge and tools necessary for its advancement. Techniques are at the core of scientific endeavors, allowing hypotheses to be tested through instruments and experiments. Even the most altruistic scientific pursuits indirectly contribute to the success of various techniques, as exemplified by the discovery of the Higgs boson.

Is Happiness the Ultimate Moral Goal?

Title: Examining the Relationship Between Happiness and Morality

Introduction:

What should be the foundation of morality? Can happiness serve as a criterion to guide our moral obligations? These questions have long intrigued philosophers seeking to define the principles that govern human actions. In this article, we will explore the role of happiness in morality and analyze different perspectives on this matter.

Happiness as an Extrinsic Motivation:

Immanuel Kant rejects the idea of making happiness the ultimate moral goal. According to Kant, morality is about fulfilling one's duty, which should be disinterested and not expect any rewards. Morality, therefore, does not seek pleasure or happiness. At most, we can strive to "make ourselves worthy of happiness." Whether moral actions lead to happiness or unhappiness is irrelevant to the uncompromising nature of moral duty. For Kant, happiness is a divine promise, something that can be hoped for in the afterlife.

Happiness as an Intrinsic Moral Goal:

However, the eudaimonistic perspective argues that happiness and virtue are intertwined. Eudaimonism asserts that happiness cannot be separated from morality and is achieved through virtue and knowledge. On the other hand, the Stoics advocate for happiness in asceticism, emphasizing freedom and virtue. True happiness, according to the Stoics, lies in detaching oneself from external goods and passions that are beyond our control. This daily exercise of willpower allows individuals to transcend the pursuit of material possessions, leading to genuine happiness.

The Pursuit of the Ultimate Good:

Aristotle posits that happiness is the ultimate good and should be pursued for its own sake. Although external circumstances, such as health, material wealth, or political freedom, contribute to happiness, they are not sufficient on their own. Aristotle disagrees with those, like the Stoics, who believe that virtue alone is enough, regardless of material conditions. Instead, he acknowledges that these external factors play a crucial role in attaining happiness.

Actionable Advice:

  • 1. Embrace the interplay between technique and science: Recognize that technique and science are interdependent fields that can benefit from each other. Embrace scientific advancements to enhance techniques and continually seek ways to improve through scientific knowledge.
  • 2. Understand the multifaceted nature of happiness: Recognize that happiness is not solely dependent on external factors but can also be achieved through internal virtues and the pursuit of knowledge. Strive for a balance between material conditions and personal growth for a more fulfilling life.
  • 3. Prioritize moral duty over extrinsic rewards: Embrace Kantian ethics by understanding that moral duty should be pursued for its own sake, without expecting rewards or happiness in return. Focus on doing what is right rather than seeking personal gain.

Conclusion:

The relationship between technique and science is one of mutual enrichment, with each domain contributing to the advancement and success of the other. Similarly, the connection between happiness and morality is multifaceted, with happiness serving as both an intrinsic and extrinsic motivator. By acknowledging these interdependencies, we can foster a deeper understanding of the complexities inherent in these subjects and navigate them in a more informed and balanced manner.

Resource:

  1. "La technique n'est-elle qu'une application de la science ?", https://www.annabac.com/revision-bac/la-technique-n-est-elle-qu-une-application-de-la-science (Glasp)
  2. "Le bonheur est-il une fin morale ?", https://www.annabac.com/revision-bac/le-bonheur-est-il-une-fin-morale (Glasp)

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