The Intersection of Sustainability Reporting and Greenwashing: A Call for Transparency

Alfred Tang

Alfred Tang

Jan 11, 20243 min read


The Intersection of Sustainability Reporting and Greenwashing: A Call for Transparency


In today's rapidly changing business landscape, the concepts of sustainability and climate change have gained significant importance. As a result, regulatory bodies and investors are placing greater emphasis on environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors when evaluating companies. This has led to the development of sustainability reporting standards and increased scrutiny on greenwashing practices. In this article, we will explore the key aspects of sustainability reporting and a recent case of alleged greenwashing by Vanguard Investments Australia. By understanding the intersection of these topics, we can highlight the importance of transparency and provide actionable advice for entities to navigate these challenges effectively.

The Rise of Sustainability Reporting:

Sustainability reporting has become an integral part of corporate reporting, providing stakeholders with valuable insights into a company's environmental and social impact. The Australian Accounting Standards Board (AASB) has introduced the AASB ED SR1, which outlines the reporting requirements for entities in different groups. Group 1 entities are expected to comply with the standards from 1 July 2024, Group 2 from 1 July 2026, and Group 3 from 1 July 2027. The AASB ED SR1 replaces references to "sustainability" with "climate" and focuses on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Measuring and Disclosing GHG Emissions:

To ensure consistency and comparability, entities are required to convert GHG emissions into a CO2 equivalent value. This is done by applying methodologies set out in the National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Scheme (NGER) legislation, utilizing Australian-specific data sources and factors. The inclusion of GHG measurement methodologies in sustainability reporting enables stakeholders to evaluate a company's carbon footprint accurately. However, it is important to note that in the first year of applying the [draft] Standard, entities are exempt from disclosing their Scope 3 GHG emissions, allowing for a grace period for implementation.

The Alleged Greenwashing Case Against Vanguard Investments Australia:

In a recent development, the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) commenced a greenwashing case against Vanguard Investments Australia. ASIC alleges that investor funds were exposed to companies with ties to fossil fuels, particularly those involved in oil and gas exploration. The case highlights the importance of robust ESG screening processes to ensure alignment with sustainability objectives. It also raises questions about the transparency and accuracy of ESG claims made by investment firms.

The Call for Transparency and Actionable Advice:

Transparency is crucial for building trust and credibility in sustainability reporting. To navigate the evolving landscape effectively, entities should consider the following actionable advice:

  • 1. Implement Robust ESG Screening: Entities should establish comprehensive ESG screening processes to ensure investments align with sustainability goals. This includes thorough due diligence on companies' activities and their impact on the environment.
  • 2. Enhance Disclosures: Apart from complying with the AASB ED SR1, entities should go beyond the minimum requirements and provide detailed climate-related financial disclosures. This will help stakeholders make informed decisions and assess the long-term sustainability of an entity.
  • 3. Embrace Independent Verification: Engaging independent third parties to verify sustainability reports can enhance credibility and trust. External verification adds an additional layer of assurance and demonstrates a commitment to transparent and accurate reporting.


Sustainability reporting and the fight against greenwashing are at the forefront of discussions in the business world. As regulatory bodies tighten reporting requirements and investors demand greater transparency, entities must stay proactive. By adhering to the AASB ED SR1, measuring and disclosing GHG emissions accurately, and implementing robust ESG screening processes, entities can navigate the challenges effectively. The case against Vanguard Investments Australia serves as a reminder of the importance of transparency and the need for organizations to align their actions with their sustainability claims. Through these efforts, entities can build trust, attract responsible investors, and contribute to a more sustainable future.

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