Understanding the Challenges of PLA Recycling and the Importance of Clear Consumer Education

Alfred Tang

Alfred Tang

Oct 22, 20233 min read


Understanding the Challenges of PLA Recycling and the Importance of Clear Consumer Education


The issue of plastic waste and recycling has become a pressing concern globally. One particular type of plastic, PLA (polylactide), has recently faced controversy due to its limited recyclability. In this article, we will explore the reasons behind the restrictions on PLA usage, the challenges it poses in the recycling process, and the importance of consumer education in addressing the larger issue of plastic waste.

The Complexity of PLA Recycling:

PLA, a biodegradable plastic, has been categorized as the seventh type of plastic that cannot be used in eight specific locations in Taiwan. This addition to the existing six categories of traditional plastic recycling has caused confusion among consumers. The lack of a comprehensive recycling concept and an inadequate backend composting system has resulted in PLA being treated as regular plastic waste. Even when PLA is correctly collected for recycling, there are currently no facilities capable of reusing or repurposing it into compost. The absence of legislation regarding PLA recycling and composting in Taiwan has hindered the establishment of a circular economy for this particular type of plastic.

Similarities and Differences with Other Biodegradable Plastics:

PLA shares similarities with other biodegradable plastics such as PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and PP (polypropylene). These plastics are derived from bio-based materials like corn and potatoes. However, PLA's biodegradability and compostability standards, as defined by EN 13432, require the material to degrade into fragments smaller than two millimeters within three months in a controlled composting environment. Additionally, 90% of the organic matter in PLA must convert to carbon dioxide within six months. The resulting compost must also pass biotoxicity tests to ensure its suitability for plant growth.

Challenges in PLA Composting:

Composting PLA requires precise temperature control, with the compost ideally maintained at 60℃. Regular watering and automatic aeration are also necessary to support the survival of microorganisms within the composting process. However, the current PLA recycling rate in Taiwan stands at a mere 5-6%, indicating a lack of suitable infrastructure and facilities for proper composting.

Consumer Confusion and the Importance of Education:

Recycling rates for plastics vary significantly across different regions, with the U.S. at a low 4.5%, Europe at 32.5%, and the U.K. at 44.2%. A significant factor contributing to low recycling rates is consumer confusion. A recent study revealed that 42% of individuals who are unsure about the recyclability of a product will make an incorrect guess. Misleading labels further compound this confusion, leaving the public uncertain about what plastics can actually be recycled. Clear and accurate consumer education is critical in addressing this confusion and increasing recycling rates.

Actionable Advice:

  • 1. Improve Labeling: Clear and standardized labeling should be implemented to indicate whether a plastic product is recyclable or not. This will help consumers make informed decisions and reduce contamination in recycling streams.
  • 2. Enhance Public Education: Governments, organizations, and businesses should collaborate to educate the public about proper recycling practices, including the specific requirements for recycling different types of plastics. This can be achieved through awareness campaigns, educational materials, and community initiatives.
  • 3. Develop Composting Infrastructure: To maximize the potential of PLA and other biodegradable plastics, investments should be made in composting facilities and systems. This will enable the proper disposal and repurposing of these materials, closing the loop in the plastic waste cycle.


The restrictions on PLA usage and the challenges it presents in recycling highlight the complexity of addressing plastic waste. Clear consumer education, improved labeling, and the development of composting infrastructure are crucial steps towards a more sustainable and efficient plastic recycling system. By understanding the unique properties and requirements of different types of plastics, we can work towards a future where plastic waste is minimized, and the circular economy is embraced.


  1. "8/1起八大類場所不可使用PLA,為何明明是「生物可分解塑膠」卻被禁用? - The News Lens 關鍵評論網", https://www.thenewslens.com/article/189587 (Glasp)
  2. "Ending consumer confusion over recycling is 'critical' in battle against plastic waste", https://www.reuters.com/sustainability/boards-policy-regulation/ending-consumer-confusion-over-recycling-is-critical-battle-against-plastic-2023-07-19/?utm_campaign=ETH%2021JUL23%20Newsletter%20Database&utm_medium=email&utm_source=Eloqua (Glasp)

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