The Complexities of Plastic Recycling: Exploring the Challenges and Potential Solutions

Alfred Tang

Alfred Tang

Aug 04, 20233 min read


The Complexities of Plastic Recycling: Exploring the Challenges and Potential Solutions


Plastic recycling has long been hailed as a solution to the growing environmental crisis caused by plastic waste. However, recent findings and regulations have shed light on the complexities and limitations of recycling processes. This article aims to explore the challenges associated with plastic recycling, focusing on the issues surrounding the use of PLA (polylactic acid) and the generation of microplastics during the recycling process.

The Misunderstood Nature of PLA:

Starting with the banning of PLA in certain locations, it is crucial to understand why this seemingly "biodegradable plastic" has faced restrictions. PLA, despite being categorized as a biodegradable material, shares similarities with traditional plastics, leading to its improper disposal and misinterpretation. When PLA is treated as regular plastic waste, it ends up in landfills and contributes to the growing problem of unrecycled plastics. The misconception lies in the fact that PLA requires a different recycling process for effective biodegradation.

The Impact of Microplastics in Recycling:

While recycling centers are considered a crucial part of the plastic waste management system, recent studies have highlighted an alarming issue – the generation of microplastics during the recycling process. Even when plastic is successfully transported to a recycling facility, it can still break down into smaller particles, leading to the release of microplastics into the environment. Research indicates that a single recycling facility could emit up to 6.5 million pounds of microplastics per year. Furthermore, the current testing methods for microplastics are limited, as they only detect particles larger than 1.6 microns, while plastic particles can be even smaller. This revelation raises concerns not only about the environmental impact but also the potential health risks for workers inhaling airborne microplastics.

The Dilemma of Diminishing Returns:

Recycling plastic is not as straightforward as it may seem. Rather than simply transforming a plastic bottle into a new one, recycling involves a deconstruction and reconstruction process. However, this process has its limitations. Each time plastic is recycled, it degrades, making it increasingly difficult to recycle repeatedly. This phenomenon, known as diminishing returns, poses a significant challenge to the sustainable cycle of plastic recycling. Eventually, the material becomes too degraded to be recycled effectively, leading to its eventual disposal as waste.

Finding Solutions and Taking Action:

While the challenges surrounding plastic recycling are complex, there are actionable steps that can be taken to address them:

  • 1. Improved Sorting and Segregation: Enhancing the sorting and segregation process at recycling facilities can minimize the mixing of different types of plastic, including PLA. By ensuring proper categorization, the recycling process can be tailored to each material's specific requirements, optimizing the potential for effective recycling.
  • 2. Advancements in Microplastic Detection: Investing in research and development to improve microplastic detection methods can provide a more accurate understanding of the extent of microplastic pollution. This knowledge can guide the implementation of necessary precautions and protective measures for workers in recycling facilities.
  • 3. Embracing Alternative Solutions: While recycling remains an essential component of waste management, exploring alternative solutions such as compostable materials and reducing overall plastic consumption can help alleviate the strain on recycling systems. Educating the public about sustainable practices and encouraging responsible consumer choices is equally vital.


The challenges surrounding plastic recycling, particularly the limitations of PLA and the generation of microplastics, highlight the need for a comprehensive and multifaceted approach. By addressing the misconceptions surrounding PLA, improving recycling processes to minimize microplastic pollution, and embracing alternative solutions, we can work towards a more sustainable future. It is crucial for individuals, industries, and governments to collaborate and take action to overcome these challenges and strive for a world with reduced plastic waste.


  1. "8/1起八大類場所不可使用PLA,為何明明是「生物可分解塑膠」卻被禁用? - The News Lens 關鍵評論網", (Glasp)
  2. "Yet Another Problem With Recycling: It Spews Microplastics", (Glasp)

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