The Complexities and Challenges of Plastic Recycling: Exploring the Impact of PLA and Microplastics

Alfred Tang

Alfred Tang

May 05, 20243 min read


The Complexities and Challenges of Plastic Recycling: Exploring the Impact of PLA and Microplastics


Plastic recycling has long been hailed as a solution to the growing problem of plastic waste. However, recent findings and regulations have shed light on the complexities and challenges associated with this process. In this article, we will delve into two specific issues: the controversial status of PLA (polylactic acid) and the detrimental effects of microplastics.

PLA: A Misunderstood Solution:

Starting with the ban on PLA in various locations, it is crucial to understand why this seemingly "biodegradable plastic" is being treated as regular plastic waste. The categorization of PLA alongside traditional plastics has resulted in its improper disposal and mismanagement. When PLA is mixed with conventional plastics during the recycling process, it affects the properties of the secondary plastic products. Despite its potential as a more environmentally friendly alternative, PLA's fate after use often mirrors that of regular plastic, turning into non-biodegradable waste.

Microplastics: The Hidden Consequences of Recycling:

Even when plastic successfully reaches recycling centers, it undergoes a deconstruction process that has unintended consequences. Microplastics, tiny plastic particles, are released into the environment during recycling. In fact, a single recycling facility can emit up to 6.5 million pounds of microplastics per year. These minuscule particles can easily infiltrate water sources, with up to 75 billion particles per cubic meter of wastewater. Moreover, the size of microplastics can be significantly smaller than what is typically tested for, posing a potential health risk.

The Challenges of Plastic Recycling:

Recycling plastic is not as straightforward as it may seem. The process of recycling involves breaking down the plastic and reassembling it into a new product. However, each recycling cycle leads to a degradation of the material, making it increasingly difficult to recycle repeatedly. This phenomenon, known as diminishing returns, limits the number of times a plastic item can be recycled effectively.

Finding Solutions: Actionable Advice:

  • 1. Educate and Raise Awareness: It is crucial to educate the public about the complexities of plastic recycling, including the challenges associated with PLA and the release of microplastics. By raising awareness, individuals can make more informed choices about their plastic consumption and disposal methods.
  • 2. Invest in Research and Innovation: Governments, industries, and research institutions should prioritize funding and support for innovative recycling technologies. Developing advanced methods for separating and processing different types of plastics can mitigate the negative impact of recycling on the environment and human health.
  • 3. Reduce and Reuse: Ultimately, the most effective solution lies in reducing plastic consumption and promoting reusable alternatives. By embracing lifestyle changes and supporting businesses that offer sustainable packaging options, individuals can significantly reduce their plastic waste footprint.


The complexities and challenges surrounding plastic recycling are evident in the cases of PLA and microplastics. While PLA holds promise as a more environmentally friendly plastic, its improper disposal and mismanagement undermine its potential benefits. Similarly, the release of microplastics during the recycling process highlights the unintended consequences of our efforts to reduce plastic waste. To address these issues effectively, education, research, and a shift towards reducing plastic consumption are crucial. By implementing actionable advice, we can work towards a more sustainable future where plastic recycling is truly beneficial for the environment.


  1. "8/1起八大類場所不可使用PLA,為何明明是「生物可分解塑膠」卻被禁用? - The News Lens 關鍵評論網", (Glasp)
  2. "Yet Another Problem With Recycling: It Spews Microplastics", (Glasp)

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