The Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness and Letter-Sound Knowledge in Learning to Read:  Combining Intervention Studies With Mediation Analyses - Charles Hulme, Claudine Bowyer-Crane, Julia M. Carroll, Fiona J. Duff, Margaret J. Snowling, 2012 thumbnail
The Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness and Letter-Sound Knowledge in Learning to Read: Combining Intervention Studies With Mediation Analyses - Charles Hulme, Claudine Bowyer-Crane, Julia M. Carroll, Fiona J. Duff, Margaret J. Snowling, 2012
journals.sagepub.com
isolation and monitor the effect of such training on their later word reading. Studies of this type generally show small effects (for discussions with respect to phoneme awareness and letter knowledge, see Castles & Coltheart, 2004, and Piasta & Wagner, 2010, respectively). generally accepted that t
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Summary

This study examines the causal role of phoneme awareness and letter-sound knowledge in learning to read. Previous studies have shown small effects, but randomized experiments are considered the best form of evidence. The study finds that phoneme awareness and letter knowledge are both necessary for understanding the alphabetic principle and improving early reading skills. Combined training of these skills is more effective than training them in isolation. A remedial reading intervention that taught letter-sound knowledge and phoneme awareness produced significant improvements in these skills and in early word-level literacy. Weaknesses in these skills are causes of difficulties in mastering word-level literacy.

Top Highlights

  • isolation and monitor the effect of such training on their later word reading. Studies of this type generally show small effects (for discussions with respect to phoneme awareness and letter knowledge, see Castles & Coltheart, 2004, and Piasta & Wagner, 2010, respectively).
  • generally accepted that the best form of evidence for addressing causal theories comes from randomized experiments that address putative causal processes (Foster, 2010).
  • large-scale randomized trial for children’s reading disorders
  • lose relationship between learning to read and children’s phonological skills (see Bowey, 2005, and Melby-Lervåg, Lyster, & Hulme, 2012, for reviews).
  • ability to isolate and manipulate phonemes in spoken words is one causal influence on the development of word-reading skills (Muter, Hulme, Snowling, & Stevenson, 2004).

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